FDIC Quarterly Banking Profile
Notes To Users
This publication contains financial data and other information for depository institutions insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). These notes are an integral part of this publication and provide information regarding the comparability of source data and reporting differences over time.
Tables I-A through VIII-A.
The information presented in Tables I-A through VIII-A of the FDIC Quarterly Banking Profile is aggregated for all FDIC-insured Call Report filers, both commercial banks and savings institutions. Some tables are arrayed by groups of FDIC-insured institutions based on predominant types of asset concentration, while other tables aggregate institutions by asset size and geographic region. Quarterly and full-year data are provided for selected indicators, including aggregate condition and income data, performance ratios, condition ratios, and structural changes, as well as past due, noncurrent, and charge-off information for loans outstanding and other assets.
Tables I-B through VI-B.
The information presented in Tables I-B through VI-B is aggregated for all FDIC-insured commercial banks and savings institutions meeting the criteria for community banks that were developed for the FDIC’s Community Banking Study, published in December, 2012: http://www.fdic.gov/regulations/resources/cbi/report/cbi-full.pdf.
The determination of which insured institutions are considered community banks is based on five steps.
The first step in defining a community bank is to aggregate all charter-level data reported under each holding company into a single banking organization. This aggregation applies both to balance-sheet measures and the number and location of banking offices. Under the FDIC definition, if the banking organization is designated as a community bank, every charter reporting under that organization is also considered a community bank when working with data at the charter level.
The second step is to exclude any banking organization where more than 50 percent of total assets are held in certain specialty banking charters, including: credit card specialists, consumer nonbank banks, industrial loan companies, trust companies, bankers’ banks, and banks holding 10 percent or more of total assets in foreign offices.
Once the specialty organizations are removed, the third step involves including organizations that engage in basic banking activities as measured by the total loans-to-assets ratio (greater than 33 percent) and the ratio of core deposits to assets (greater than 50 percent). Core deposits are defined as non-brokered deposits in domestic offices. Analysis of the underlying data shows that these thresholds establish meaningful levels of basic lending and deposit gathering and still allow for a degree of diversity in how individual banks construct their balance sheets.
The fourth step includes organizations that operate within a limited geographic scope. This limitation of scope is used as a proxy measure for a bank’s relationship approach to banking. Banks that operate within a limited market area have more ease in managing relationships at a personal level. Under this step, four criteria are applied to each banking organization. They include both a minimum and maximum number of total banking offices, a maximum level of deposits for any one office, and location-based criteria. The limits on the number of and deposits per office are adjusted upward quarterly. For banking offices, banks must have more than one office, and the maximum number of offices is 40 in 1985 and reached 87 in 2016. The maximum level of deposits for any one office is $1.25 billion in deposits in 1985 and reached $6.97 billion in deposits in 2016. The remaining geographic limitations are also based on maximums for the number of states (fixed at 3) and large metropolitan areas (fixed at 2) in which the organization maintains offices. Branch office data are based on the most recent data from the annual June 30 Summary of Deposits Survey that are available at the time of publication.
Finally, the definition establishes an asset-size limit, also adjusted upward quarterly and below which the limits on banking activities and geographic scope are waived. The asset-size limit is $250 million in 1985 and reached $1.39 billion in 2016. This final step acknowledges the fact that most of those small banks that are not excluded as specialty banks meet the requirements for banking activities and geographic limits in any event.
Summary of FDIC Research Definition of Community Banking Organizations
Community banks are designated at the level of the banking organization.
(All charters under designated holding companies are considered community banking charters.)
Exclude: Any organization with:
- No loans or no core deposits
- Foreign Assets ≥ 10% of total assets
- More than 50% of assets in certain specialty banks, including:
Include: All remaining banking organizations with:
- Total assets < indexed size threshold2
- Total assets >= indexed size threshold, where:
- Loan to assets > 33%
- Core deposits to assets > 50%
- More than 1 office but no more than the indexed maximum number of offices.3
- Number of large MSAs with offices <= 2
- Number of states with offices <= 3
- No single office with deposits > indexed maximum branch deposit size.4
1 Consumer nonbank banks are financial institutions with limited charters that can make commercial loans or take deposits, but not both.
2 Asset size threshold indexed to equal $250 million in 1985 and $1.39 billion in 2016.
3 Maximum number of offices indexed to equal 40 in 1985 and 87 in 2016.
4 Maximum branch deposit size indexed to equal $1.25 billion in 1985 and $6.97 billion in 2016.
Tables I-C through IV-C.
A separate set of tables (Tables I-C through IV-C) provides comparative quarterly data related to the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF), problem institutions, failed institutions, estimated FDIC-insured deposits, as well as assessment rate information. Depository institutions that are not insured by the FDIC through the DIF are not included in the FDIC Quarterly Banking Profile. U.S. branches of institutions headquartered in foreign countries and non-deposit trust companies are not included unless otherwise indicated. Efforts are made to obtain financial reports for all active institutions. However, in some cases, final financial reports are not available for institutions that have closed or converted their charters.
The financial information appearing in this publication is obtained primarily from the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) Consolidated Reports of Condition and Income (Call Reports) and the OTS Thrift Financial Reports (TFR) submitted by all FDIC-insured depository institutions. (TFR filers began filing Call Reports effective with the quarter ending March 31, 2012.) This information is stored on and retrieved from the FDIC’s Research Information System (RIS) database.
Parent institutions are required to file consolidated reports, while their subsidiary financial institutions are still required to file separate reports. Data from subsidiary institution reports are included in the Quarterly Banking Profile tables, which can lead to double-counting. No adjustments are made for any double-counting of subsidiary data. Additionally, certain adjustments are made to the OTS Thrift Financial Reports (TFR) to provide closer conformance with the reporting and accounting requirements of the FFIEC Call Reports. (TFR filers began filing Call Reports effective with the quarter ending March 31, 2012.) All condition and performance ratios represent weighted averages, which is the sum of the individual numerator values divided by the sum of individual denominator values. All asset and liability figures used in calculating performance ratios represent average amounts for the period (beginning-of-period amount plus end-of-period amount plus any interim periods, divided by the total number of periods). For "pooling-of-interest" mergers, the assets of the acquired institution(s) are included in average assets, since the year-to-date income includes the results of all merged institutions. No adjustments are made for "purchase accounting" mergers. Growth rates represent the percentage change over a 12-month period in totals for institutions in the base period to totals for institutions in the current period. For the community bank subgroup, growth rates will reflect changes over time in the number and identities of institutions designated as community banks, as well as changes in the assets and liabilities, and income and expenses of group members. Unless indicated otherwise, growth rates are not adjusted for mergers or other changes in the composition of the community bank subgroup. When community bank growth rates are adjusted for mergers, prior period balances used in the calculations represent totals for the current group of community bank reporters, plus prior period amounts for any institutions that were subsequently merged into current community banks.
All data are collected and presented based on the location of each reporting institution's main office. Reported data may include assets and liabilities located outside of the reporting institution’s home state. In addition, institutions may relocate across state lines or change their charters, resulting in an inter-regional or inter-industry migration; institutions can move their home offices between regions, savings institutions can convert to commercial banks, or commercial banks may convert to savings institutions.
Financial accounting pronouncements by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) can result in changes in an individual bank's accounting policies and in the Call Reports they submit. Such accounting changes can affect the aggregate amounts presented in the QBP for the current period and the period-to-period comparability of such financial data.
The current quarter's Financial Institution Letter (FIL) and related Call Report supplemental instructions can provide additional explanation to the QBP reader beyond any material accounting changes discussed in the QBP analysis.
Further information on changes in financial statement presentation, income recognition and disclosure is available from the FASB.http://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/LandingPage&cid=1175805317350.
DEFINITIONS (in alphabetical order)
All other assets - total cash, balances due from depository institutions, premises, fixed assets, direct investments in real estate, investment in unconsolidated subsidiaries, customers’ liability on acceptances outstanding, assets held in trading accounts, federal funds sold, securities purchased with agreements to resell, fair market value of derivatives, prepaid deposit insurance assessments, and other assets.
All other liabilities - bank's liability on acceptances, limited-life preferred stock, allowance for estimated off-balance-sheet credit losses, fair market value of derivatives, and other liabilities.
Assessment base - effective April 1, 2011, the deposit insurance assessment base changed to "average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity" with an additional adjustment to the assessment base for banker’s banks and custodial banks, as permitted under Dodd-Frank. Previously the assessment base was "assessable deposits" and consisted of deposits in banks’ domestic offices with certain adjustments.
Assessment rate schedule - Initial base assessment rates for small institutions are based on a combination of financial ratios and CAMELS component ratings. Initial rates for large institutions—generally those with at least $10 billion in assets—are also based on CAMELS component ratings and certain financial measures combined into two scorecards—one for most large institutions and another for the remaining very large institutions that are structurally and operationally complex or that pose unique challenges and risks in case of failure (highly complex institutions). The FDIC may take additional information into account to make a limited adjustment to a large institution’s scorecard results, which are used to determine a large institution’s initial base assessment rate.
While risk categories for small institutions (except new institutions) were eliminated effective July 1, 2016, initial rates for small institutions are subject to minimums and maximums based on an institution’s CAMELS composite rating. (Risk categories for large institutions were eliminated in 2011.)
The current assessment rate schedule became effective July 1, 2016. Under the current schedule, initial base assessment rates range from 3 to 30 basis points. An institution’s total base assessment rate may differ from its initial rate due to three possible adjustments: (1) Unsecured Debt Adjustment: An institution’s rate may decrease by up to 5 basis points for unsecured debt. The unsecured debt adjustment cannot exceed the lesser of 5 basis points or 50 percent of an institution’s initial base assessment rate (IBAR). Thus, for example, an institution with an IBAR of 3 basis points would have a maximum unsecured debt adjustment of 1.5 basis points and could not have a total base assessment rate lower than 1.5 basis points. (2) Depository Institution Debt Adjustment: For institutions that hold long-term unsecured debt issued by another insured depository institution, a 50 basis point charge is applied to the amount of such debt held in excess of 3 percent of an institution’s Tier 1 capital. (3) Brokered Deposit Adjustment: Rates for large institutions that are not well capitalized or do not have a composite CAMELS rating of 1 or 2 may increase (not to exceed 10 basis points) if their brokered deposits exceed 10 percent of domestic deposits.
The assessment rate schedule effective July 1, 2016, is shown in the following table:
|Established Small Banks
|Large & Highly
|1 or 2||3||4 or 5|
|Initial Base Assessment Rate||3 to 16||6 to 30||16 to 30||3 to 30|
|Unsecured Debt Adjustment||-5 to 0||-5 to 0||-5 to 0||-5 to 0|
|Brokered Deposit Adjustment||N/A||N/A||N/A||0 to 10|
|Total Base Assessment Rate||1.5 to 16||3 to 30||11 to 30||1.5 to 40|
* All amounts for all categories are in basis points annually Total base rates that are not the minimum or maximum rate will vary between these rates Total base assessment rates do not include the depository institution debt adjustment
** Effective July 1, 2016, large institutions are also subject to temporary assessment surcharges in order to raise the reserve ratio from 115 percent to 135 percent The surcharges amount to 45 basis points of a large institution's assessment base (after making certain adjustments)
Each institution is assigned a risk-based rate for a quarterly assessment period near the end of the quarter following the assessment period. Payment is generally due on the 30th day of the last month of the quarter following the assessment period. Supervisory rating changes are effective for assessment purposes as of the examination transmittal date.
Assets securitized and sold - total outstanding principal balance of assets securitized and sold with servicing retained or other seller- provided credit enhancements.
Capital Purchase Program (CPP) - As announced in October 2008 under the TARP, the Treasury Department purchase of noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and related warrants that is treated as Tier 1 capital for regulatory capital purposes is included in "Total equity capital." Such warrants to purchase common stock or noncumulative preferred stock issued by publicly-traded banks are reflected as well in "Surplus." Warrants to purchase common stock or noncumulative preferred stock of not-publicly-traded bank stock classified in a bank’s balance sheet as "Other liabilities."
Common equity Tier 1 capital ratio – ratio of common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets. Common equity Tier 1 capital includes common stock instruments and related surplus, retained earnings, accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI), and limited amounts of common equity Tier 1 minority interest, minus applicable regulatory adjustments and deductions. Items that are fully deducted from common equity Tier 1 capital include goodwill, other intangible assets (excluding mortgage servicing assets) and certain deferred tax assets; items that are subject to limits in common equity Tier 1 capital include mortgage servicing assets, eligible deferred tax assets, and certain significant investments.
Construction and development loans - includes loans for all property types under construction, as well as loans for land acquisition and development.
Core capital - common equity capital plus noncumulative perpetual preferred stock plus minority interest in consolidated subsidiaries, less goodwill and other ineligible intangible assets. The amount of eligible intangibles (including servicing rights) included in core capital is limited in accordance with supervisory capital regulations.
Cost of funding earning assets - total interest expense paid on deposits and other borrowed money as a percentage of average earning assets.
Credit enhancements - techniques whereby a company attempts to reduce the credit risk of its obligations. Credit enhancement may be provided by a third party (external credit enhancement) or by the originator (internal credit enhancement), and more than one type of enhancement may be associated with a given issuance.
Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF) - the Bank (BIF) and Savings Association (SAIF) Insurance Funds were merged in 2006 by the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act to form the DIF.
Derivatives notional amount - the notional, or contractual, amounts of derivatives represent the level of involvement in the types of derivatives transactions and are not a quantification of market risk or credit risk. Notional amounts represent the amounts used to calculate contractual cash flows to be exchanged.
Derivatives credit equivalent amount - the fair value of the derivative plus an additional amount for potential future credit exposure based on the notional amount, the remaining maturity and type of the contract.
Derivatives transaction types:
Futures and forward contracts - contracts in which the buyer agrees to purchase and the seller agrees to sell, at a specified future date, a specific quantity of an underlying variable or index at a specified price or yield. These contracts exist for a variety of variables or indices (traditional agricultural or physical commodities, as well as currencies and interest rates). Futures contracts are standardized and are traded on organized exchanges which set limits on counterparty credit exposure. Forward contracts do not have standardized terms and are traded over the counter.
Option contracts - contracts in which the buyer acquires the right to buy from or sell to another party some specified amount of an underlying variable or index at a stated price (strike price) during a period or on a specified future date, in return for compensation (such as a fee or premium). The seller is obligated to purchase or sell the variable or index at the discretion of the buyer of the contract.
Swaps - obligations between two parties to exchange a series of cash flows at periodic intervals (settlement dates), for a specified period. The cash flows of a swap are either fixed, or determined for each settlement date by multiplying the quantity (notional principal) of the underlying variable or index by specified reference rates or prices. Except for currency swaps, the notional principal is used to calculate each payment but is not exchanged.
Derivatives underlying risk exposure - the potential exposure characterized by the level of banks’ concentration in particular underlying instruments, in general. Exposure can result from market risk, credit risk, and operational risk, as well as, interest rate risk.
Domestic deposits to total assets - total domestic office deposits as a percent of total assets on a consolidated basis.
Earning assets - all loans and other investments that earn interest or dividend income.
Efficiency ratio - Noninterest expense less amortization of intangible assets as a percent of net interest income plus noninterest income. This ratio measures the proportion of net operating revenues that are absorbed by overhead expenses, so that a lower value indicates greater efficiency.
Estimated insured deposits - in general, insured deposits are total domestic deposits minus estimated uninsured deposits. Beginning March 31, 2008, for institutions that file Call Reports, insured deposits are total assessable deposits minus estimated uninsured deposits. Beginning September 30, 2009, insured deposits include deposits in accounts of $100,000 to $250,000 that are covered by a temporary increase in the FDIC’s standard maximum deposit insurance amount (SMDIA). The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act enacted on July 21, 2010, made permanent the standard maximum deposit insurance amount (SMDIA) of $250,000. Also, the Dodd-Frank Act amended the Federal Deposit Insurance Act to include noninterest-bearing transaction accounts as a new temporary deposit insurance account category. All funds held in noninterest-bearing transaction accounts were fully insured, without limit, from December 31, 2010, through December 31, 2012.
Failed/assisted institutions - an institution fails when regulators take control of the institution, placing the assets and liabilities into a bridge bank, conservatorship, receivership, or another healthy institution. This action may require the FDIC to provide funds to cover losses. An institution is defined as "assisted" when the institution remains open and receives assistance in order to continue operating.
Fair Value - the valuation of various assets and liabilities on the balance sheet—including trading assets and liabilities, available-for-sale securities, loans held for sale, assets and liabilities accounted for under the fair value option, and foreclosed assets—involves the use of fair values. During periods of market stress, the fair values of some financial instruments and nonfinancial assets may decline.
FHLB advances - all borrowings by FDIC-insured institutions from the Federal Home Loan Bank System (FHLB), as reported by Call Report filers, and by TFR filers prior to March 31, 2012.
Goodwill and other intangibles - intangible assets include servicing rights, purchased credit card relationships, and other identifiable intangible assets. Goodwill is the excess of the purchase price over the fair market value of the net assets acquired, less subsequent impairment adjustments. Other intangible assets are recorded at fair value, less subsequent quarterly amortization and impairment adjustments.
Loans secured by real estate - includes home equity loans, junior liens secured by 1-4 family residential properties, and all other loans secured by real estate.
Loans to individuals - includes outstanding credit card balances and other secured and unsecured consumer loans.
Long-term assets (5+ years) - loans and debt securities with remaining maturities or repricing intervals of over five years.
Maximum credit exposure - the maximum contractual credit exposure remaining under recourse arrangements and other seller-provided credit enhancements provided by the reporting bank to securitizations.
Mortgage-backed securities - certificates of participation in pools of residential mortgages and collateralized mortgage obligations issued or guaranteed by government-sponsored or private enterprises. Also, see "Securities," below.
Net charge-offs - total loans and leases charged off (removed from balance sheet because of uncollectability), less amounts recovered on loans and leases previously charged off.
Net interest margin - the difference between interest and dividends earned on interest-bearing assets and interest paid to depositors and other creditors, expressed as a percentage of average earning assets. No adjustments are made for interest income that is tax exempt.
Net loans to total assets - loans and lease financing receivables, net of unearned income, allowance and reserves, as a percent of total assets on a consolidated basis.
Net operating income - income excluding discretionary transactions such as gains (or losses) on the sale of investment securities and extraordinary items. Income taxes subtracted from operating income have been adjusted to exclude the portion applicable to securities gains (or losses).
Noncurrent assets - the sum of loans, leases, debt securities, and other assets that are 90 days or more past due, or in nonaccrual status.
Noncurrent loans & leases - the sum of loans and leases 90 days or more past due, and loans and leases in nonaccrual status.
Number of institutions reporting - the number of institutions that actually filed a financial report.
New reporters - insured institutions filing quarterly financial reports for the first time.
Other borrowed funds - federal funds purchased, securities sold with agreements to repurchase, demand notes issued to the U.S. Treasury, FHLB advances, other borrowed money, mortgage indebtedness, obligations under capitalized leases and trading liabilities, less revaluation losses on assets held in trading accounts.
Other real estate owned - primarily foreclosed property. Direct and indirect investments in real estate ventures are excluded. The amount is reflected net of valuation allowances. For institutions that filed a Thrift Financial Report (TFR), the valuation allowance subtracted also includes allowances for other repossessed assets. Also, for TFR filers the components of other real estate owned are reported gross of valuation allowances. (TFR filers began filing Call Reports effective with the quarter ending March 31, 2012.)
Percent of institutions with earnings gains - the percent of institutions that increased their net income (or decreased their losses) compared to the same period a year earlier.
"Problem" institutions - federal regulators assign a composite rating to each financial institution, based upon an evaluation of financial and operational criteria. The rating is based on a scale of 1 to 5 in ascending order of supervisory concern."Problem" institutions are those institutions with financial, operational, or managerial weaknesses that threaten their continued financial viability. Depending upon the degree of risk and supervisory concern, they are rated either a "4" or "5." The number and assets of "problem" institutions are based on FDIC composite ratings. Prior to March 31, 2008, for institutions whose primary federal regulator was the OTS, the OTS composite rating was used.
Recourse - an arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank’s claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse.
Reserves for losses - the allowance for loan and lease losses on a consolidated basis.
Restructured loans and leases - loan and lease financing receivables with terms restructured from the original contract. Excludes restructured loans and leases that are not in compliance with the modified terms.
Retained earnings - net income less cash dividends on common and preferred stock for the reporting period.
Return on assets - bank net income (including gains or losses on securities and extraordinary items) as a percentage of average (consolidated) total assets. The basic yardstick of bank profitability.
Return on equity - bank net income (including gains or losses on securities and extraordinary items) as a percentage of average total equity capital.
Risk-weighted assets - assets adjusted for risk-based capital definitions which include on-balance-sheet as well as off-balance-sheet items multiplied by risk-weights that range from zero to 200 percent. A conversion factor is used to assign a balance sheet equivalent amount for selected off-balance-sheet accounts.
Securities - excludes securities held in trading accounts. Banks' securities portfolios consist of securities designated as "held-to-maturity" (reported at amortized cost (book value)), securities designated as "available-for-sale" (reported at fair (market) value), and equity securities with readily determinable fair values not held for trading.
Securities gains (losses) - realized gains (losses) on held-to-maturity and available-for-sale securities, before adjustments for income taxes. Thrift Financial Report (TFR) filers also include gains (losses) on the sales of assets held for sale. (TFR filers began filing Call Reports effective with the quarter ending March 31, 2012.)
Seller’s interest in institution’s own securitizations - the reporting bank’s ownership interest in loans and other assets that have been securitized, except an interest that is a form of recourse or other seller-provided credit enhancement. Seller’s interests differ from the securities issued to investors by the securitization structure. The principal amount of a seller’s interest is generally equal to the total principal amount of the pool of assets included in the securitization structure less the principal amount of those assets attributable to investors, i.e., in the form of securities issued to investors.
Small Business Lending Fund — The Small Business Lending Fund (SBLF) was enacted into law in September 2010 as part of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 to encourage lending to small businesses by providing capital to qualified community institutions with assets of less than $10 billion. The SBLF Program is administered by the U.S. Treasury Department ( http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sb-programs/Pages/Small-Business-Lending-Fund.aspx ).
Under the SBLF Program, the Treasury Department purchased noncumulative perpetual preferred stock from qualifying depository institutions and holding companies (other than Subchapter S and mutual institutions). When this stock has been issued by a depository institution, it is reported as "Perpetual preferred stock and related surplus." For regulatory capital purposes, this noncumulative perpetual preferred stock qualifies as a component of Tier 1 capital. Qualifying Subchapter S corporations and mutual institutions issue unsecured subordinated debentures to the Treasury Department through the SBLF. Depository institutions that issued these debentures report them as "Subordinated notes and debentures." For regulatory capital purposes, the debentures are eligible for inclusion in an institution’s Tier 2 capital in accordance with their primary federal regulator’s capital standards. To participate in the SBLF Program, an institution with outstanding securities issued to the Treasury Department under the Capital Purchase Program (CPP) was required to refinance or repay in full the CPP securities at the time of the SBLF funding. Any outstanding warrants that an institution issued to the Treasury Department under the CPP remain outstanding after the refinancing of the CPP stock through the SBLF Program unless the institution chooses to repurchase them.
Subchapter S Corporation - a Subchapter S corporation is treated as a pass-through entity, similar to a partnership, for federal income tax purposes. It is generally not subject to any federal income taxes at the corporate level. This can have the effect of reducing institutions’ reported taxes and increasing their after-tax earnings.
Trust assets - market value, or other reasonably available value of fiduciary and related assets, to include marketable securities, and other financial and physical assets. Common physical assets held in fiduciary accounts include real estate, equipment, collectibles, and household goods. Such fiduciary assets are not included in the assets of the financial institution.
Unearned income and contra accounts - unearned income for Call Report filers only.
Unused loan commitments - includes credit card lines, home equity lines, commitments to make loans for construction, loans secured by commercial real estate, and unused commitments to originate or purchase loans. (Excluded are commitments after June 2003 for originated mortgage loans held for sale, which are accounted for as derivatives on the balance sheet.)
Yield on earning assets - total interest, dividend, and fee income earned on loans and investments as a percentage of average earning assets.