6500 - Consumer Protection
Section 226.18Content of Disclosures
1. As applicable. The disclosures required by this section need be made only as applicable. Any disclosure not relevant to a particular transaction may be eliminated entirely. For example:
In a loan transaction, the creditor may delete disclosure of the total sale price.
Where the amounts of several numerical disclosures are the same, the "as applicable" language also permits creditors to combine the terms, so long as it is done in a clear and conspicuous manner. For example:
In a transaction in which the amount financed equals the total of payments, the creditor may disclose "amount financed/total of payments," together with descriptive language, followed by a single amount.
However, if the terms are separated on the disclosure statement and separate space is provided for each amount, both disclosures must be completed, even though the same amount is entered in each space.
2. Format. See the commentary to § 226.17 and appendix H for a discussion of the format to be used in making these disclosures, as well as acceptable modifications.
1. Identification of creditor. The creditor making the disclosures must be identified. This disclosure may, at the creditor's option, appear apart from the other disclosures. Use of the creditor's name is sufficient, but the creditor may also include an address and/or telephone number. In transactions with multiple creditors, any one of them may make the disclosures; the one doing so must be identified.
18(b) Amount financed.
1. Disclosure required. The net amount of credit extended must be disclosed using the term "amount financed" and a descriptive explanation similar to the phrase in the regulation.
2. Rebates and loan premiums. In a loan transaction, the creditor may offer a premium in the form of cash or merchandise to prospective borrowers. Similarly, in a credit sale transaction, a seller's or manufacturer's rebate may be offered to prospective purchasers of the creditor's goods or services. At the creditor's option, these amounts may be either reflected in the Truth in Lending disclosures or disregarded in the disclosures. If the creditor chooses to reflect them in the § 226.18 disclosures, rather than disregard them, they may be taken into account in any manner as part of those disclosures.
1. Downpayments. A downpayment is defined in § 226.2(a)(18) to include, at the creditor's option, certain deferred downpayments or pick-up payments. A deferred downpayment that meets the criteria set forth in the definition may be treated as part of the downpayment, at the creditor's option.
Deferred downpayments that are not treated as part of the downpayment (either because they do not meet the definition or because the creditor simply chooses not to treat them as downpayments) are included in the amount financed.
Deferred downpayments that are treated as part of the downpayment are not part of the amount financed under § 226.18(b)(1).
1. Adding other amounts. Fees or other charges that are not part of the finance charge and that are financed rather than paid separately at consummation of the transaction are included in the amount financed. Typical examples are real estate settlement charges and premiums for voluntary credit life and disability insurance excluded from the finance charge under § 226.4. This paragraph does not include any amounts already accounted for under § 226.18(b)(1), such as taxes, tag and title fees, or the costs of accessories or service policies that the creditor includes in the cash price.
1. Prepaid finance charges. Prepaid finance charges that are paid separately in cash or by check should be deducted under § 226.18(b)(3) in calculating the amount financed. To illustrate:
A consumer applies for a loan of $2,500 with a $40 loan fee. The face amount of the note is $2,500 and the consumer pays the loan fee separately by cash or check at closing. The principal loan amount for purposes of § 226.18(b)(1) is $2,500 and $40 should be deducted under § 226.18(b)(3), thereby yielding an amount financed of $2,460.
In some instances, as when loan fees are financed by the creditor, finance charges are incorporated in the face amount of the note. Creditors have the option, when the charges are not add-on or discount charges, of determining a principal loan amount under § 226.18(b)(1) that either includes or does not include the amount of the finance charges. (Thus the principal loan amount may, but need not, be determined to equal the face amount of the note.) When the finance charges are included in the principal loan amount, they should be deducted as prepaid finance charges under § 226.18(b)(3). When the finance charges are not included in the principal loan amount, they should not be deducted under § 226.18(b)(3). The following examples illustrate the application of § 226.18(b) to this type of transaction. Each example assumes a loan request of $2,500 with a loan fee of $40; the creditor assesses the loan fee by increasing the face amount of the note to $2,540.
If the creditor determines the principal loan amount under § 226.18(b)(1) to be $2,540, it has included the loan fee in the principal loan amount and should deduct $40 as a prepaid finance charge under § 226.18(b)(3), thereby obtaining an amount financed of $2,500.
If the creditor determines the principal loan amount under § 226.18(b)(1) to be $2,500, it has not included the loan fee in the principal loan amount and should not deduct any amount under § 226.18(b)(3), thereby obtaining an amount financed of $2,500. The same rules apply when the creditor does not increase the face amount of the note by the amount of the charge but collects the charge by withholding it from the amount advanced to the consumer. To illustrate, the following examples assume a loan request of $2,500 with a loan fee of $40; the creditor prepares a note for $2,500 and advances $2,460 to the consumer.
If the creditor determines the principal loan amount under § 226.18(b)(1) to be $2,500, it has included the loan fee in the principal loan amount and should deduct $40 as a prepaid finance charge under § 226.18(b)(3), thereby obtaining an amount financed of $2,460.
If the creditor determines the principal loan amount under § 226.18(b)(1) to be $2,460, it has not included the loan fee in the principal loan amount and should not deduct any amount under § 226.18(b)(3), thereby obtaining an amount financed of $2,460. Thus in the examples where the creditor derives the net amount of credit by determining a principal loan amount that does not include the amount of the finance charge, no subtraction is appropriate. Creditors should note, however, that although the charges are not subtracted as prepaid finance charges in those examples, they are nonetheless finance charges and must be treated as such.
2. Add-on or discount charges. All finance charges must be deducted from the amount of credit in calculating the amount financed. If the principal loan amount reflects finance charges that meet the definition of a prepaid finance charge in § 226.2, those charges are included in the § 226.18(b)(1) amount and deducted under § 226.18(b)(3). However, if the principal loan amount includes finance charges that do not meet the definition of a prepaid finance charge, the § 226.18(b)(1) amount must exclude those finance charges. The following examples illustrate the application of § 226.18(b) to these types of transactions. Each example assumes a loan request of $1000 for one year, subject to a six percent precomputed interest rate, with a $10 loan fee paid separately at consummation.
The creditor assesses add-on interest of $60 which is added to the $1000 in loan proceeds for an obligation with a face amount of $1060. The principal for purposes of § 226.18(b)(1) is $1000, no amounts are added under § 226.18(b)(2), and the $10 loan fee is a prepaid finance charge to be deducted under § 226.18(b)(3). The amount financed is $990.
The creditor assesses discount interest of $60 and distributes $940 to the consumer, who is liable for an obligation with a face amount of $1000. The principal under § 226.18(b)(1) is $940, which results in an amount financed of $930, after deduction of the $10 prepaid finance charge under § 226.18(b)(3).
The creditor assesses $60 in discount interest by increasing the face amount of the obligation to $1060, with the consumer receiving $1000. The principal under § 226.18(b)(1) is thus $1000 and the amount financed $990, after deducting the $10 prepaid finance charge under § 226.18(b)(3).
18(c) Itemization of amount financed.
1. Disclosure required. The creditor has two alternatives in complying with § 226.18(c):
The creditor may inform the consumer, on the segregated disclosures, that a written itemization of the amount financed will be provided on request, furnishing the itemization only if the customer in fact requests it.
The creditor may provide an itemization as a matter of course, without notifying the consumer of the right to receive it or waiting for a request.
Whether given as a matter of course or only on request, the itemization must be provided at the same time as the other disclosures required by § 226.18, although separate from those disclosures.
2. Additional information. Section 226.18(c) establishes only a minimum standard for the material to be included in the itemization of the amount financed. Creditors have considerable flexibility in revising or supplementing the information listed in § 226.18(c) and shown in model form H-3, although no changes are required. The creditor may, for example, do one or more of the following:
i. Include amounts that reflect payments not part of the amount financed. For example, escrow items and certain insurance premiums may be included, as discussed in the commentary to § 226.18(g).
ii. Organize the categories in any order. For example, the creditor may rearrange the terms in a mathematical progression that depicts the arithmetic relationship of the terms.
iii. Add categories. For example, in a credit sale, the creditor may include the cash price and the downpayment. If the credit sale involves a trade-in of the consumer's car and an existing lien on that car exceeds the value of the trade-in amount, the creditor may disclose the consumer's trade-in value, the creditor's payoff of the existing lien, and the resulting additional amount financed.
iv. Further itemize each category. For example, the amount paid directly to the consumer may be subdivided into the amount given by check and the amount credited to the consumer's savings account.
v. Label categories with different language from that shown in § 226.18(c). For example, an amount paid on the consumer's account may be revised to specifically identify the account as "your auto loan with us."
vi. Delete, leave blank, mark "N/A" or otherwise not inapplicable categories in the itemization. For example, in a credit sale with no prepaid finance charges or amounts paid to others, the amount financed may consist of only the cash price less downpayment. In this case, the itemization may be composed of only a single category and all other categories may be eliminated.
3. Amounts appropriate to more than one category. When an amount may appropriately be placed in any of several categories and the creditor does not wish to revise the categories shown in § 226.18(c), the creditor has considerable flexibility in determining where to show the amount. For example:
In a credit sale, the portion of the purchase price being financed by the creditor may be viewed as either an amount paid to the consumer or an amount paid on the consumer's account.
4. RESPA transactions. The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) requires creditors to provide a good faith estimate of closing costs and a settlement statement listing the amounts paid by the consumer. Transactions subject to RESPA are exempt from the requirements of § 226.18(c) if the creditor complies with RESPA's requirements for a good faith estimate and settlement statement. The itemization of the amount financed need not be given, even though the content and timing of the good faith estimate and settlement statement under RESPA differ from the requirements of §§ 226.18(c) and 226.19(a)(2). If a creditor chooses to substitute RESPA's settlement statement for the itemization when redisclosure is required under § 226.19(a)(2), the statement must be delivered to the consumer at or prior to consummation. The disclosures required by §§ 226.18(c) and 226.19(a)(2) may appear on the same page or on the same document as the good faith estimate or the settlement statement, so long as the requirements of § 226.17(a) are met.
1. Amounts paid to consumer. This encompasses funds given to the consumer in the form of cash or a check, including joint proceeds checks, as well as funds placed in an asset account. It may include money in an interest-bearing account even if that amount is considered a required deposit under § 226.18(r). For example, in a transaction with total loan proceeds of $500, the consumer receives a check for $300 and $200 is required by the creditor to be put into an interest-bearing account. Whether or not the $200 is a required deposit, it is part of the amount financed. At the creditor's option, it may be broken out and labeled in the itemization of the amount financed.
1. Amounts credited to consumer's account. The term "consumer's account" refers to an account in the nature of a debt with that creditor. It may include, for example, an unpaid balance on a prior loan, a credit sale balance or other amounts owing to that creditor. It does not include asset accounts of the consumer such as savings or checking accounts.
1. Amounts paid to others. This includes, for example, tag and title fees; amounts paid to insurance companies for insurance premiums; security interest fees, and amounts paid to credit bureaus, appraisers or public officials. When several types of insurance premiums are financed, they may, at the creditor's option, be combined and listed in one sum, labeled "insurance" or similar term. This includes, but is not limited to, different types of insurance premiums paid to one company and different types of insurance premiums paid to different companies. Except for insurance companies and other categories noted in footnote 41, third parties must be identified by name.
2. Charges added to amounts paid to others. A sum is sometimes added to the amount of a fee charged to a consumer for a service provided by a third party (such as for an extended warranty or a service contract) that is payable in the same amount in comparable cash and credit transactions. In the credit transaction, the amount is retained by the creditor. Given the flexibility permitted in meeting the requirements of the amount financed itemization (see the commentary to § 226.18(c)), the creditor in such cases may reflect that the creditor has retained a portion of the amount paid to others. For example, the creditor could add to the category "amount paid to others" language such as "(we may be retaining a portion of this amount)."
1. Prepaid finance charge. Prepaid finance charges that are deducted under § 226.18(b)(3) must be disclosed under this section. The prepaid finance charges must be shown as a total amount but may, at the creditor's option, also be further itemized and described. All amounts must be reflected in this total, even if portions of the prepaid finance charge are also reflected elsewhere. For example, if at consummation the creditor collects interim interest of $30 and a credit report fee of $10, a total prepaid finance charge of $40 must be shown. At the creditor's option, the credit report fee paid to a third party may also be shown elsewhere as an amount included in § 226.18(c)(1)(iii). The creditor may also further describe the two components of the prepaid finance charge, although no itemization of this element is required by § 226.18(c)(1)(iv).
2. Prepaid mortgage insurance premiums. RESPA requires creditors to give consumers a settlement statement disclosing the costs associated with mortgage loan transactions. Included on the settlement statement are mortgage insurance premiums collected at settlement, which are prepaid finance charges. In calculating the total amount of prepaid finance charges, creditors should use the amount for mortgage insurance listed on the line for mortgage insurance on the settlement statement (line 1002 on HUD--1 or HUD 1--A), without adjustment, even if the actual amount collected at settlement may vary because of RESPA's escrow accounting rules. Figures for mortgage insurance disclosed in conformance with RESPA shall be deemed to be accurate for purposes of Regulation Z.
18(d) Finance charge.
1. Disclosure required. The creditor must disclose the finance charge as a dollar amount, using the term "finance charge," and must include a brief description similar to that in § 226.18(d). The creditor may, but need not, further modify the descriptor for variable rate transactions, with a phrase such as "which is subject to change." The finance charge must be shown on the disclosures only as a total amount; the elements of the finance charge must not be itemized in the segregated disclosures, although the regulation does not prohibit their itemization elsewhere.
18(d)(2) Other credit.
1. Tolerance. When a finance charge error results in a misstatement of the amount financed, or some other dollar amount for which the regulation provides no specific tolerance, the misstated disclosure does not violate the act or the regulation if the finance charge error is within the permissible tolerance under this paragraph.
18(e) Annual percentage rate.
1. Disclosure required. The creditor must disclose the cost of the credit as an annual rate, using the term "annual percentage rate," plus a brief descriptive phrase comparable to that used in § 226.18(e). For variable rate transactions, the descriptor may be further modified with a phrase such as "which is subject to change." Under § 226.17(a), the terms "annual percentage rate" and "finance charge" must be more conspicuous than the other required disclosures.
2. Exception. Footnote 42 provides an exception for certain transactions in which no annual percentage rate disclosure is required.
18(f) Variable rate.
1. Coverage. The requirements of § 226.18(f) apply to all transactions in which the terms of the legal obligation allow the creditor to increase the rate originally disclosed to the consumer. It includes not only increases in the interest rate but also increases in other components, such as the rate of required credit life insurance. The provisions, however, do not apply to increases resulting from delinquency (including late payment), default, assumption, acceleration or transfer of the collateral. Section 226.18(f)(1) applies to variable-rate transactions that are not secured by the consumer's principal dwelling and to those that are secured by the principal dwelling but have a term of one year or less. Section 226.18(f)(2) applies to variable-rate transactions that are secured by the consumer's principal dwelling and have a term greater than one year. Moreover, transactions subject to § 226.18(f)(2) are subject to the special early disclosure requirements of § 226.19(b). (However, "shared-equity" or "shared-appreciation" mortgages are subject to the disclosure requirements of § 226.18(f)(1) and not to the requirements of §§ 226.18(f)(2) and 226.19(b) regardless of the general coverage of those sections.) Creditors are permitted under footnote 43 to substitute in any variable-rate transaction the disclosures required under § 226.19(b) for those disclosures ordinarily required under 226.18(f)(1). Creditors who provide variable-rate disclosures under § 226.19(b) must comply with all of the requirements of that section, including the timing of disclosures, and must also provide the disclosures required under § 226.18(f)(2). Creditors utilizing footnote 43 may, but need not, also provide disclosures pursuant to § 226.20(c). (Substitution of disclosures under § 226.18(f)(1) in transactions subject to § 226.19(b) is not permitted under the footnote.)
1. Terms used in disclosure. In describing the variable rate feature, the creditor need not use any prescribed terminology. For example, limitations and hypothetical examples may be described in terms of interest rates rather than annual percentage rates. The model forms in appendix H provide examples of ways in which the variable rate disclosures may be made.
2. Conversion feature. In variable-rate transactions with an option permitting consumers to convert to a fixed-rate transaction, the conversion option is a variable-rate feature that must be disclosed. In making disclosures under § 226.18(f)(1), creditors should disclose the fact that the rate may increase upon conversion; identify the index or formula used to set the fixed rate; and state any limitations on and effects of an increase resulting from conversion that differs from other variable-rate features. Because § 226.18(f)(1)(iv) requires only one hypothetical example (such as an example of the effect on payments resulting from changes in the index), a second hypothetical example need not be given.
1. Circumstances. The circumstances under which the rate may increase include identification of any index to which the rate is tied, as well as any conditions or events on which the increase is contingent.
When no specific index is used, any identifiable factors used to determine whether to increase the rate must be disclosed.
When the increase in the rate is purely discretionary, the fact that any increase is within the creditor's discretion must be disclosed.
When the index is internally defined (for example, by that creditor's prime rate), the creditor may comply with this requirement by either a brief description of that index or a statement that any increase is in the discretion of the creditor. An externally defined index, however, must be identified.
1. Limitations. This includes any maximum imposed on the amount of an increase in the rate at any time, as well as any maximum on the total increase over the life of the transaction. Except for private education loans disclosures, when there are no limitations, the creditor may, but need not, disclose that fact, and limitations do not include legal limits in the nature of usury or rate ceilings under State or Federal statutes or regulations. (See § 226.30 for the rule requiring that a maximum interest rate be included in certain variable-rate transactions.) For disclosures with respect to private education loan disclosures, see comment 47(b)(1)--2.
1. Effects. Disclosure of the effect of an increase refers to an increase in the number or amount of payments or an increase in the final payment. In addition, the creditor may make a brief reference to negative amortization that may result from a rate increase. (See the commentary to § 226.17(a)(1) regarding directly related information.) If the effect cannot be determined, the creditor must provide a statement of the possible effects. For example, if the exercise of the variable-rate feature may result in either more or larger payments, both possibilities must be noted.
1. Hypothetical example. The example may, at the creditor's option, appear apart from the other disclosures. The creditor may provide either a standard example that illustrates the terms and conditions of that type of credit offered by that creditor or an example that directly reflects the terms and conditions of the particular transaction. In transactions with more than one variable-rate feature, only one hypothetical example need be provided. (See the commentary to section 226.17(a)(1) regarding disclosure of more than one hypothetical example as directly related information.)
2. Hypothetical example not required. The creditor need not provide a hypothetical example in the following transactions with a variable-rate feature:
Demand obligations with no alternate maturity date.
Private education loans as defined in § 226.46(b)(5).
Multiple-advance construction loans disclosed pursuant to Appendix D, Part I.
1. Disclosure required. In variable-rate transactions that have a term greater than one year and are secured by the consumer's principal dwelling, the creditor must give special early disclosures under § 226.19(b) in addition to the later disclosures required under § 226.18(f)(2). The disclosures under § 226.18(f)(2) must state that the transaction has a variable-rate feature and that variable-rate disclosures have been provided earlier. (See the commentary to § 226.17(a)(1) regarding the disclosure of certain directly related information in addition to the variable-rate disclosures required under § 226.18(f)(2).)
18(g) Payment schedule.
1. Amounts included in repayment schedule. The repayment schedule should reflect all components of the finance charge, not merely the portion attributable to interest. A prepaid finance charge, however, should not be shown in the repayment schedule as a separate payment. The payments may include amounts beyond the amount financed and finance charge. For example, the disclosed payments may, at the creditor's option, reflect certain insurance premiums where the premiums are not part of either the amount financed or the finance charge, as well as real estate escrow amounts such as taxes added to the payment in mortgage transactions.
2. Deferred downpayments. As discussed in the commentary to § 226.2(a)(18), deferred downpayments or pick-up payments that meet the conditions set forth in the definition of downpayment may be treated as part of the downpayment. Even if treated as a downpayment, that amount may nevertheless be disclosed as part of the payment schedule, at the creditor's option.
3. Total number of payments. In disclosing the number of payments for transactions with more than one payment level, creditors may but need not disclose as a single figure the total number of payments for all levels. For example, in a transaction calling for 108 payments of $350, 240 payments of $335, and 12 payments of $330, the creditor need not state that there will be a total of 360 payments.
4. Timing of payments. i. General rule. Section 226.18(g) requires creditors to disclose the timing of payments. To meet this requirement, creditors may list all of the payment due dates. They also have the option of specifying the "period of payments" scheduled to repay the obligation. As a general rule, creditors that choose this option must disclose the payment intervals or frequency, such as "monthly" or "bi-weekly," and the calendar date that the beginning payment is due. For example, a creditor may disclose that payments are due "monthly beginning on July 1, 1998." This information, when combined with the number of payments, is necessary to define the repayment period and enable a consumer to determine all of the payment due dates.
ii. Exception. In a limited number of circumstances, the beginning-payment date is unknown and difficult to determine at the time disclosures are made. For example, a consumer may become obligated on a credit contract that contemplates the delayed disbursement of funds based on a contingent event, such as the completion of home repairs. Disclosures may also accompany loan checks that are sent by mail, in which case the initial disbursement and repayment dates are solely within the consumer's control. In such cases, if the beginning-payment date is unknown the creditor may use an estimated date and label the disclosure as an estimate pursuant to § 226.17(c). Alternatively, the disclosure may refer to the occurrence of a particular event, for example, by disclosing that the beginning payment is due "30 days after the first loan disbursement." This information also may be included with an estimated date to explain the basis for the creditor's estimate. See Comment 17(a)(1)--5(iii).
5. Mortgage insurance. The payment schedule should reflect the consumer's mortgage insurance payments until the date on which the creditor must automatically terminate coverage under applicable law, even though the consumer may have a right to request that the insurance be cancelled earlier. The payment schedule must reflect the legal obligation, as determined by applicable state or other law. For example, assume that under applicable law, mortgage insurance must terminate after the 130th scheduled monthly payment, and the creditor collects at closing and places in escrow two months of premiums. If, under the legal obligation, the creditor will include mortgage insurance premiums in 130 payments and refund the escrowed payments when the insurance is terminated, the payment schedule should reflect 130 premium payments. If, under the legal obligation, the creditor will apply the amount escrowed to the two final insurance payments, the payment schedule should reflect 128 monthly premium payments. (For assumptions in calculating a payment schedule that includes mortgage insurance that must be automatically terminated, see comments 17(c)(1)--8 and 17(c)(1)--10.)
1.Demand obligations. In demand obligations with no alternate maturity date, the creditor has the option of disclosing only the due dates or periods of scheduled interest payments in the first year (for example, "interest payable quarterly" or "interest due the first of each month"). The amounts of the interest payments need not be shown.
1. Abbreviated disclosure. The creditor may disclose an abbreviated payment schedule when the amount of each regularly scheduled payment (other than the first or last payment) includes an equal amount to be applied on principal and a finance charge computed by application of a rate to the decreasing unpaid balance. This option is also available when mortgage-guarantee insurance premiums, paid either monthly or annually, cause variations in the amount of the scheduled payments, reflecting the continual decrease or increase in the premium due. In addition, in transactions where payments vary because interest and principal are paid at different intervals, the two series of payments may be disclosed separately and the abbreviated payment schedule may be used for the interest payments. For example, in transactions with fixed quarterly principal payments and monthly interest payments based on the outstanding principal balance, the amount of the interest payments will change quarterly as principal declines. In such cases the creditor may treat the interest and principal payments as two separate series of payments, separately disclosing the number, amount, and due dates of principal payments, and, using the abbreviated payment schedule, the number, amount, and due dates of interest payments. This option may be used when interest and principal are scheduled to be paid on the same date of the month as well as on different dates of the month. The creditor using this alternative must disclose the dollar amount of the highest and lowest payments and make reference to the variation in payments.
2. Combined payment schedule disclosures. Creditors may combine the option in this paragraph with the general payment schedule requirements in transactions where only a portion of the payment schedule meets the conditions of § 226.18(g)(2). For example, in a graduated payment mortgage where payments rise sharply for five years and then decline over the next 25 years because of decreasing mortgage insurance premiums, the first five years would be disclosed under the general rule in § 226.18(g) and the next 25 years according to the abbreviated schedule in § 226.18(g)(2).
3. Effect on other disclosures. Section 226.18(g)(2) applies only to the payment schedule disclosure. The actual amounts of payments must be taken into account in calculating and disclosing the finance charge and the annual percentage rate.
18(h) Total of payments.
1. Disclosure required. The total of payments must be disclosed using that term, along with a descriptive phrase similar to the one in the regulation. The descriptive explanation may be revised to reflect a variable rate feature with a brief phrase such as "based on the current annual percentage rate which may change."
2. Calculation of total of payments. The total of payments is the sum of the payments disclosed under § 226.18(g). For example, if the creditor disclosed a deferred portion of the downpayment as part of the payment schedule, that payment must be reflected in the total disclosed under this paragraph.
3. Exception. Footnote 44 permits creditors to omit disclosure of the total of payments in single-payment transactions. This exception does not apply to a transaction calling for a single payment of principal combined with periodic payments of interest.
4. Demand obligations. In demand obligations with no alternate maturity date, the creditor may omit disclosure of payment amounts under § 226.18(g)(1). In those transactions, the creditor need not disclose the total of payments.
18(i) Demand feature.
1. Disclosure requirements. The disclosure requirements of this provision apply not only to transactions payable on demand from the outset, but also to transactions that are not payable on demand at the time of consummation but convert to a demand status after a stated period. In demand obligations in which the disclosures are based on an assumed maturity of one year under § 226.17(c)(5), that fact must also be stated. Appendix H contains model clauses that may be used in making this disclosure.
2. Covered demand features. The type of demand feature triggering the disclosures required by § 226.18(i) includes only those demand features contemplated by the parties as part of the legal obligation. For example, this provision does not apply to transactions that convert to a demand status as a result of the consumer's default. A due-on-sale clause is not considered a demand feature. A creditor may, but need not, treat its contractual right to demand payment of a loan made to its executive officers as a demand feature to the extent that the contractual right is required by Regulation O (12 CFR 215.5) or other federal law.
3. Relationship to payment schedule disclosures. As provided in § 226.18(g)(1), in demand obligations with no alternate maturity date, the creditor need only disclose the due dates or payment periods of any scheduled interest payments for the first year. If the demand obligation states an alternate maturity, however, the disclosed payment schedule must reflect that stated term; the special rule in § 226.18(g)(1) is not available.
18(j) Total sale price.
1. Disclosure required. In a credit sale transaction, the "total sale price" must be disclosed using that term, along with a descriptive explanation similar to the one in the regulation. For variable rate transactions, the descriptive phrase may, at the creditor's option, be modified to reflect the variable rate feature. For example, the descriptor may read: "The total cost of your purchase on credit, which is subject to change, including your
downpayment of ***." The reference to a downpayment may be eliminated in transactions calling for no downpayment.
2. Calculation of total sale price. The figure to be disclosed is the sum of the cash price, other charges added under § 226.18(b)(2), and the finance charge disclosed under § 226.18(d).
3. Effect of existing liens. When a credit sale transaction involves property that is being used as a trade-in (an automobile, for example) and that has a lien exceeding the value of the trade-in, the total sale price is affected by the amount of any cash provided. (See comment 2(a)(18)--3.) To illustrate, assume a consumer finances the purchase of an automobile with a cash price of $20,000. Another vehicle used as a trade-in has a value of $8,000 but has an existing lien of $10,000, leaving a $2,000 deficit that the consumer must finance.
i. If the consumer pays $1,500 in cash, the creditor may apply the cash first to the lien, leaving a $500 deficit, and reflect a downpayment of $0. The total sale price would include the $20,000 cash price, an additional $500 financed under § 226.18(b)(2), and the amount of the finance charge. Alternatively, the creditor may reflect a downpayment of $1,500 and finance the $2,000 deficit. In that case, the total sale price would include the sum of the $20,000 cash price, the $2,000 lien payoff amount as an additional amount financed, and the amount of the finance charge.
ii. If the consumer pays $3,000 in cash, the creditor may apply the cash first to extinguish the lien and reflect the remainder as a downpayment of $1,000. The total sale price would reflect the $20,000 cash price and the amount of the finance charge. (The cash payment extinguishes the trade-in deficit and no charges are added under § 226.18(b)(2).) Alternatively, the creditor may elect to reflect a downpayment of $3,000 and finance the $2,000 deficit. In that case, the total sale price would include the sum of the $20,000 cash price, the $2,000 lien payoff amount as an additional amount financed, and the amount of the finance charge.
1. Penalty.This applies only to those transactions in which the interest calculation takes account of all scheduled reductions in principal, as well as transactions in which interest calculations are made daily. The term penalty as used here encompasses only those charges that are assessed strictly because of the prepayment in full of a simple-interest obligation, as an addition to all other amounts. Items which are penalties include, for example:
Interest charges for any period after prepayment in full is made. (See the commentary to § 226.17(a)(1) regarding disclosure of interest charges assessed for periods after prepayment in full as directly related information.)
A minimum finance charge in a simple-interest transaction. (See the commentary to § 226.17(a)(1) regarding the disclosure of a minimum finance charge as directly related information.) Items which are not penalties include, for example, loan guarantee fees.
2. Rebate-penalty disclosure. A single transaction may involve both a precomputed finance charge and a finance charge computed by application of a rate to the unpaid balance (for example, mortgages with mortgage guarantee insurance). In these cases, disclosures about both prepayment rebates and penalties are required. Sample from H-15 in appendix H illustrates a mortgage transaction in which both rebate and penalty disclosures are necessary.
3. Prepaid finance charge. The existence of a prepaid finance charge in a transaction does not, by itself, require a disclosure under § 226.18(k). A prepaid finance charge is not considered a penalty under § 226.18(k)(1), nor does it require a disclosure under § 226.18(k)(2). At its option, however, a creditor may consider a prepaid finance charge to be under § 226.18(k)(2). If a disclosure is made under § 226.18(k)(2) with respect to a prepaid finance charge or other finance charge, the creditor may further identify that finance charge. For example, the disclosure may state that the borrower "will not be entitled to a refund of the prepaid finance charge" or some other term that describes the finance charge.
1. Penalty. This applies only to those transactions in which the interest calculation takes account of all scheduled reductions in principal, as well as transactions in which interest calculations are made daily. The term "penalty" as used here encompasses only those charges that are assessed strictly because of the prepayment in full of a simple-interest obligation, as an addition to all other amounts. Items which are penalties include, for example:
Interest charges for any period after prepayment in full is made. (See the commentary to § 226.17(a)(1) regarding disclosure of interest charges assessed for periods after prepayment in full as directly related information.)
A minimum finance charge in a simple-interest transaction. (See the commentary to § 226.17(a)(1) regarding the disclosure of a minimum finance charge as directly related information.)
Items which are not penalties include, for example:
Loan guarantee fees.
Interim interest on a student loan.
However, a minimum finance charge is a penalty in a simple-interest transaction. (See the commentary to § 226.17(a)(1) regarding the disclosure of a minimum finance charge as directly related information.)
1. Rebate of finance charge. This applies to any finance charges that do not take account of each reduction in the principal balance of an obligation. This category includes, for example:
Precomputed finance charges such as add-on charges.
Charges that take account of some but not all reductions in principal, such as mortgage guarantee insurance assessed on the basis of an annual declining balance, when the principal is reduced on a monthly basis.
No description of the method of computing earned or unearned finance charges is required or permitted as part of the segregated disclosures under this section.
18(l) Late payment.
1. Definition. This paragraph requires a disclosure only if charges are added to individual delinquent installments by a creditor who otherwise considers the transaction ongoing on its original terms. Late payment charges do not include:
The right of acceleration.
Fees imposed for actual collection costs, such as repossession charges or attorney's fees.
The continued accrual of simple interest at the contract rate after the payment due date. However, an increase in the interest rate is a late payment charge to the extent of the increase.
2. Content of disclosure. Many state laws authorize the calculation of late charges on the basis of either a percentage or a specified dollar amount, and permit imposition of the lesser or greater of the two charges. The disclosure made under § 226.18( l) may reflect this alternative. For example, stating that the charge in the event of a late payment is 5% of the late amount, not to exceed $5.00, is sufficient. Many creditors also permit a grace period during which no late charge will be assessed; this fact may be disclosed as directly related information. (See the commentary to § 226.17(a).)
18(m) Security interest.
1. Purchase money transactions. When the collateral is the item purchased as part of, or with the proceeds of, the credit transaction, § 226.18(m) requires only a general identification such as "the property purchased in this transaction." However, the creditor may identify the property by item or type instead of identifying it more generally with a phrase such as "the property purchased in this transaction." For example, a creditor may identify collateral as "a motor vehicle," or as "the property purchased in this transaction." Any transaction in which the credit is being used to purchase the collateral is considered a purchase money transaction and the abbreviated identification may be used, whether the obligation is treated as a loan or a credit sale.
2. Nonpurchase money transactions. In nonpurchase money transactions, the property subject to the security interest must be identified by item or type. This disclosure is satisfied by a general disclosure of the category of property subject to the security interest, such as "motor vehicles," "securities," "certain household items," or "household goods." (Creditors should be aware, however, that the federal credit practices rules, as well as some state laws, prohibit certain security interests in household goods.) At the creditor's option, however, a more precise identification of the property or goods may be provided.
3. Mixed collateral. In some transactions in which the credit is used to purchase the collateral, the creditor may also take other property of the consumer as security. In those cases, a combined disclosure must be provided, consisting of an identification of the purchase money collateral consistent with comment 18(m)-1 and a specific identification of the other collateral consistent with comment 18(m)-2.
4. After-acquired property. An after-acquired property clause is not a security interest to be disclosed under § 226.18(m).
5. Spreader clause. The fact that collateral for pre-existing credit with the institution is being used to secure the present obligation constitutes a security interest and must be disclosed. (Such security interests may be known as "spreader" or "dragnet" clauses, or as "cross-collateralization" clauses.) A specific identification of that collateral is unnecessary but a reminder of the interest arising from the prior indebtedness is required. The disclosure may be made by using language such as "collateral securing other loans with us may also secure this loan." At the creditor's option, a more specific description of the property involved may be given.
6. Terms used in disclosure. No specified terminology is required in disclosing a security interest. Although the disclosure may, at the creditor's option, use the term "security interest," the creditor may designate its interest by using, for example, "pledge," "lien," or "mortgage."
7. Collateral from third party. In certain transactions, the consumer's obligation may be secured by collateral belonging to a third party. For example, a loan to a student may be secured by an interest in the property of the student's parents. In such cases, the security interest is taken in connection with the transaction and must be disclosed, even though the property encumbered is owned by someone other than the consumer.
18(n) Insurance and debt cancellation.
1. Location. This disclosure may, at the creditor's option, appear apart from the other disclosures. It may appear with any other information, including the amount financed itemization, any information prescribed by state law, or other supplementary material. When this information is disclosed with the other segregated disclosures, however, no additional explanatory material may be included.
2. Debt cancellation. Creditors may use the model credit insurance disclosures only if the debt cancellation coverage constitutes insurance under state law. Otherwise, they may provide a parallel disclosure that refers to debt cancellation coverage.
18(o) Certain security interest charges.
1. Format. No special format is required for these disclosures; under § 226.4(e), taxes and fees paid to government officials with respect to a security interest may be aggregated, or may be broken down by individual charge. For example, the disclosure could be labeled"filing fees and taxes" and all funds disbursed for such purposes may be aggregated in a single disclosure. This disclosure may appear, at the creditor's option, apart from the other required disclosures. The inclusion of this information on a statement required under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act is sufficient disclosure for purposes of Truth in Lending.
18(p) Contract reference.
1. Content. Creditors may substitute, for the phrase "appropriate contract document," a reference to specific transaction documents in which the additional information is found, such as "promissory note" or "retail installment sale contract." A creditor may, at its option, delete inapplicable items in the contract reference, as for example when the contract documents contain no information regarding the right of acceleration.
18(q) Assumption policy.
1. Policy statement. In many mortgages, the creditor cannot determine, at the time disclosure must be made, whether a loan may be assumable at a future date on its original terms. For example, the assumption clause commonly used in mortgages sold to the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation conditions an assumption on a variety of factors such as the creditworthiness of the subsequent borrower, the potential for impairment of the lender's security, and execution of an assumption agreement by the subsequent borrower. In cases where uncertainty exists as to the future assumability of a mortgage, the disclosure under § 226.18(q) should reflect that fact. In making disclosures in such cases, the creditor may use phrases such as "subject to conditions," "under certain circumstances," or "depending on future conditions." The creditor may provide a brief reference to more specific criteria such as a due-on-sale clause, although a complete explanation of all conditions is not appropriate. For example, the disclosure may state, "Someone buying your home may be allowed to assume the mortgage on its original terms, subject to certain conditions, such as payment of an assumption fee." See comment 17(a)(1)--5 for an example for a reference to a due-on-sale clause.
2. Original terms. The phrase "original terms" for purposes of § 226.18(q) does not preclude the imposition of an assumption fee, but a modification of the basic credit agreement, such as a change in the contract interest rate, represents different terms.
18(r) Required deposit.
1. Disclosure required. The creditor must inform the consumer of the existence of a required deposit. (Appendix H provides a model clause that may be used in making that disclosure.) Footnote 45 describes three types of deposits that need not be considered required deposits. Use of the phrase "need not" permits creditors to include the disclosure even in cases where there is doubt as to whether the deposit constitutes a required deposit.
2. Pledged account mortgages. In these transactions, a consumer pledges as collateral funds that the consumer deposits in an account held by the creditor. The creditor withdraws sums from that account to supplement the consumer's periodic payments. Creditors may treat these pledged accounts as required deposits or they may treat them as consumer buydowns in accordance with the commentary to § 226.17(c)(1).
3. Escrow accounts. The escrow exception in footnote 45 applies, for example, to accounts for such items as maintenance fees, repairs, or improvements, whether in a realty or a nonrealty transaction. (See the commentary to § 226.17(c)(1) regarding the use of escrow accounts in consumer buydown transactions.)
4. Interest-bearing accounts. When a deposit earns at least five percent interest per year, no disclosure is required under § 226.18(r). This exception applies whether the deposit is held by the creditor or by a third party.
5. Morris Plan transactions. A deposit under a Morris Plan, in which a deposit account is created for the sole purpose of accumulating payments and this is applied to satisfy entirely the consumer's obligation in the transaction, is not a required deposit.
6. Examples of amounts excluded. The following are among the types of deposits that need not be treated as required deposits:
Requirement that a borrower be a customer or a member even if that involves a fee or a minimum balance.
Required property insurance escrow on a mobile home transaction.
Refund of interest when the obligation is paid in full.
Deposits that are immediately available to the consumer.
Funds deposited with the creditor to be disbursed (for example, for construction) before the loan proceeds are advanced.
Escrow of condominium fees.
Escrow of loan proceeds to be released when the repairs are completed.
Statute: Section 128, the Garn-St Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-320), and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (12 U.S.C. 2602).
Other sections: §§ 226.2, 226.17, and appendix H.
Other regulations: 12 CFR 545.6-2(a), and 12 CFR 29.
Previous regulation: §§ 226.4 and 226.8.
1981 changes: Five of the required disclosures must be explained to the consumer in a manner similar to the descriptive phrases shown in the regulation. A written itemization of the amount financed need not be provided unless the consumer requests it. The finance charge must be provided in all transactions, including real estate transactions, but must be shown only as a total amount. The disclosed finance charge is considered accurate if it is within a specified range.
The variable rate hypothetical is required in all variable rate transactions and may be either general or transaction-specific. The penalty and rebate disclosures in the event of prepayment have been modified and combined. The requirement of an explanation of how the rebates or penalties are computed has been eliminated. The late payment disclosure has also been narrowed to include only charges imposed before maturity for late payments.
The information required in the security interest disclosure has been decreased by the deletion of the type of security interest and a reduction in the property description requirement. The disclosure of the required deposit is limited to a statement that the annual percentage rate does not reflect the required deposit; the presence of a required deposit has no effect on the annual percentage rate.
Two disclosure requirements have been added: a reference to the contract documents for additional information and, in a residential mortgage transaction, a statement of the creditor's assumption policy.