FDIC Law, Regulations, Related Acts
6500 - Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
PART 1013CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M)
Authority, scope, purpose, and enforcement.
§ 1013.2 Definitions.
§ 1013.3 General disclosure requirements.
§ 1013.4 Content of disclosures.
§ 1013.5 Renegotiations, extensions, and assumptions.
§ 1013.6 [Reserved]
§ 1013.7 Advertising.
§ 1013.8 Record retention.
§ 1013.9 Relation to state laws.
Appendix A to Part 1013Model Forms
Appendix B to Part 1013 [Reserved]
Appendix C to Part 1013Issuance of Official Interpretations
Supplement I to Part 1013Official Interpretations
AUTHORITY: 15 U.S.C. 1604 and 1667f; Pub. L. 111--203 Section 1100E, 124 Stat. 1376.
§ 1013.1 Authority, scope, purpose, and enforcement.
(a) Authority. The regulation in this part, known as Regulation M, is issued by the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection to implement the consumer leasing provisions of the Truth in Lending Act, which is Title I of the Consumer Credit Protection Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.). Information collection requirements contained in this part have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under the provisions of 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and have been assigned OMB control number 3170-0006.
(b) Scope and purpose. This part applies to all persons that are lessors of personal property under consumer leases as those terms are defined in § 1013.2(e)(1) and (h), except persons excluded from coverage of this part by section 1029 of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010, Title X of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act), Public Law 111--203, 124 Stat. 1376. The purpose of this part is:
(1) To ensure that lessees of personal property receive meaningful disclosures that enable them to compare lease terms with other leases and, where appropriate, with credit transactions;
(2) To limit the amount of balloon payments in consumer lease transactions; and
(3) To provide for the accurate disclosure of lease terms in advertising.
(c) Enforcement and liability. Section 108 of the Act contains the administrative enforcement provisions. Sections 112, 130, 131, and 185 of the Act contain the liability provisions for failing to comply with the requirements of the Act and this part.
For the purposes of this part the following definitions apply:
(a) Act means the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) and the Consumer Leasing Act is Chapter 5 of the Truth in Lending Act.
(b) Advertisement means a commercial message in any medium that directly or indirectly promotes a consumer lease transaction.
(c) Bureau refers to the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection.
(d) Closed-end lease means a consumer lease other than an open-end lease as defined in this section.
(e)(1) Consumer lease means a contract in the form of a bailment or lease for the use of personal property by a natural person primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, for a period exceeding four months and for a total contractual obligation not exceeding the applicable threshold amount, whether or not the lessee has the option to purchase or otherwise become the owner of the property at the expiration of the lease. The threshold amount is adjusted annually to reflect increases in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers, as applicable. See the official commentary to this paragraph (e) for the threshold amount applicable to a specific consumer lease. Unless the context indicates otherwise, in this part "lease" means "consumer lease."
(2) The term does not include a lease that meets the definition of a credit sale in Regulation Z (12 CFR 226.2(a)). It also does not include a lease for agricultural, business, or commercial purposes or a lease made to an organization.
(3) This part does not apply to a lease transaction of personal property which is incident to the lease of real property and which provides that:
(i) The lessee has no liability for the value of the personal property at the end of the lease term except for abnormal wear and tear; and
(ii) The lessee has no option to purchase the leased property.
(f) Gross capitalized cost means the amount agreed upon by the lessor and the lessee as the value of the leased property and any items that are capitalized or amortized during the lease term, including but not limited to taxes, insurance, service agreements, and any outstanding prior credit or lease balance. Capitalized cost reduction means the total amount of any rebate, cash payment, net trade-in allowance, and noncash credit that reduces the gross capitalized cost. The adjusted capitalized cost equals the gross capitalized cost less the capitalized cost reduction, and is the amount used by the lessor in calculating the base periodic payment.
(g) Lessee means a natural person who enters into or is offered a consumer lease.
(h) Lessor means a person who regularly leases, offers to lease, or arranges for the lease of personal property under a consumer lease. A person who has leased, offered, or arranged to lease personal property more than five times in the preceding calendar year or more than five times in the current calendar year is subject to the Act and this part.
(i) Open-end lease means a consumer lease in which the lessee's liability at the end of the lease term is based on the difference between the residual value of the leased property and its realized value.
(j) Organization means a corporation, trust, estate, partnership, cooperative, association, or government entity or instrumentality.
(k) Person means a natural person or an organization.
(l) Personal property means any property that is not real property under the law of the state where the property is located at the time it is offered or made available for lease.
(m) Realized value means:
(1) The price received by the lessor for the leased property at disposition;
(2) The highest offer for disposition of the leased property; or
(3) The fair market value of the leased property at the end of the lease term.
(n) Residual value means the value of the leased property at the end of the lease term, as estimated or assigned at consummation by the lessor, used in calculating the base periodic payment.
(o) Security interest and security mean any interest in property that secures the payment or performance of an obligation.
(p) State means any state, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States.
§1013.3 General disclosure requirements.
(a) General requirements. A lessor shall make the disclosures required by § 1013.4, as applicable. The disclosures shall be made clearly and conspicuously in writing in a form the consumer may keep, in accordance with this section. The disclosures required by this part may be provided to the lessee in electronic form, subject to compliance with the consumer consent and other applicable provisions of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act) (15 U.S.C. 7001 et seq.). For an advertisement accessed by the consumer in electronic form, the disclosures required by § 1013.7 may be provided to the consumer in electronic form in the advertisement, without regard to the consumer consent or other provisions of the E-Sign Act.
(1) Form of disclosures. The disclosures required by § 1013.4 shall be given to the lessee together in a dated statement that identifies the lessor and the lessee; the disclosures may be made either in a separate statement that identifies the consumer lease transaction or in the contract or other document evidencing the lease. Alternatively, the disclosures required to be segregated from other information under paragraph (a)(2) of this section may be provided in a separate dated statement that identifies the lease, and the other required disclosures may be provided in the lease contract or other document evidencing the lease. In a lease of multiple items, the property description required by § 1013.4(a) may be given in a separate statement that is included in the disclosure statement required by this paragraph.
(2) Segregation of certain disclosures. The following disclosures shall be segregated from other information and shall contain only directly related information: §§ 1013.4(b) through (f), (g)(2), (h)(3), (i)(1), (j), and (m)(1). The headings, content, and format for the disclosures referred to in this paragraph (a)(2) shall be provided in a manner substantially similar to the applicable model form in Appendix A of this part.
(3) Timing of disclosures. A lessor shall provide the disclosures to the lessee prior to the consummation of a consumer lease.
(4) Language of disclosures. The disclosures required by § 1013.4 may be made in a language other than English provided that they are made available in English upon the lessee's request.
(b) Additional information; nonsegregated disclosures. Additional information may be provided with any disclosure not listed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, but it shall not be stated, used, or placed so as to mislead or confuse the lessee or contradict, obscure, or detract attention from any disclosure required by this part.
(c) Multiple lessors or lessees. When a transaction involves more than one lessor, the disclosures required by this part may be made by one lessor on behalf of all the lessors. When a lease involves more than one lessee, the lessor may provide the disclosures to any lessee who is primarily liable on the lease.
(d) Use of estimates. If an amount or other item needed to comply with a required disclosure is unknown or unavailable after reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain the information, the lessor may use a reasonable estimate that is based on the best information available to the lessor, is clearly identified as an estimate, and is not used to circumvent or evade any disclosures required by this part.
(e) Effect of subsequent occurrence. If a required disclosure becomes inaccurate because of an event occurring after consummation, the inaccuracy is not a violation of this part.
(f) Minor variations. A lessor may disregard the effects of the following in making disclosures:
(1) That payments must be collected in whole cents;
(2) That dates of scheduled payments may be different because a scheduled date is not a business day;
(3) That months have different numbers of days; and
(4) That February 29 occurs in a leap year.
§1013.4 Content of disclosures.
For any consumer lease subject to this part, the lessor shall disclose the following information, as applicable:
(a) Description of property. A brief description of the leased property sufficient to identify the property to the lessee and lessor.
(b) Amount due at lease signing or delivery. The total amount to be paid prior to or at consummation or by delivery, if delivery occurs after consummation, using the term "amount due at lease signing or delivery." The lessor shall itemize each component by type and amount, including any refundable security deposit, advance monthly or other periodic payment, and capitalized cost reduction; and in motor vehicle leases, shall itemize how the amount due will be paid, by type and amount, including any net trade-in allowance, rebates, noncash credits, and cash payments in a format substantially similar to the model forms in Appendix A of this part.
(c) Payment schedule and total amount of periodic payments. The number, amount, and due dates or periods of payments scheduled under the lease, and the total amount of the periodic payments.
(d) Other charges. The total amount of other charges payable to the lessor, itemized by type and amount, that are not included in the periodic payments. Such charges include the amount of any liability the lease imposes upon the lessee at the end of the lease term; the potential difference between the residual and realized values referred to in paragraph (k) of this section is excluded.
(e) Total of payments. The total of payments, with a description such as "the amount you will have paid by the end of the lease." This amount is the sum of the amount due at lease signing (less any refundable amounts), the total amount of periodic payments (less any portion of the periodic payment paid at lease signing), and other charges under paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. In an open-end lease, a description such as "you will owe an additional amount if the actual value of the vehicle is less than the residual value" shall accompany the disclosure.
(f) Payment calculation. In a motor vehicle lease, a mathematical progression of how the scheduled periodic payment is derived, in a format substantially similar to the applicable model form in Appendix A of this part, which shall contain the following:
(1) Gross capitalized cost. The gross capitalized cost, including a disclosure of the agreed upon value of the vehicle, a description such as "the agreed upon value of the vehicle [state the amount] and any items you pay for over the lease term (such as service contracts, insurance, and any outstanding prior credit or lease balance)," and a statement of the lessee's option to receive a separate written itemization of the gross capitalized cost. If requested by the lessee, the itemization shall be provided before consummation.
(2) Capitalized cost reduction. The capitalized cost reduction, with a description such as "the amount of any net trade-in allowance, rebate, noncash credit, or cash you pay that reduces the gross capitalized cost."
(3) Adjusted capitalized cost. The adjusted capitalized cost, with a description such as "the amount used in calculating your base [periodic] payment."
(4) Residual value. The residual value, with a description such as "the value of the vehicle at the end of the lease used in calculating your base [periodic] payment."
(5) Depreciation and any amortized amounts. The depreciation and any amortized amounts, which is the difference between the adjusted capitalized cost and the residual value, with a description such as "the amount charged for the vehicle's decline in value through normal use and for any other items paid over the lease term."
(6) Rent charge. The rent charge, with a description such as "the amount charged in addition to the depreciation and any amortized amounts." This amount is the difference between the total of the base periodic payments over the lease term minus the depreciation and any amortized amounts.
(7) Total of base periodic payments. The total of base periodic payments with a description such as "depreciation and any amortized amounts plus the rent charge."
(8) Lease payments. The lease payments with a description such as "the number of payments in your lease."
(9) Base periodic payment. The total of the base periodic payments divided by the number of payment periods in the lease.
(10) Itemization of other charges. An itemization of any other charges that are part of the periodic payment.
(g) Early termination--(1) Conditions and disclosure of charges. A statement of the conditions under which the lessee or lessor may terminate the lease prior to the end of the lease term; and the amount or a description of the method for determining the amount of any penalty or other charge for early termination, which must be reasonable.
(2) Early termination notice. In a motor vehicle lease, a notice substantially similar to the following: "Early Termination. You may have to pay a substantial charge if you end this lease early. The charge may be up to several thousand dollars. The actual charge will depend on when the lease is terminated. The earlier you end the lease, the greater this charge is likely to be."
(h) Maintenance responsibilities. The following provisions are required:
(1) Statement of responsibilities. A statement specifying whether the lessor or the lessee is responsible for maintaining or servicing the leased property, together with a brief description of the responsibility;
(2) Wear and use standard. A statement of the lessor's standards for wear and use (if any), which must be reasonable; and
(3) Notice of wear and use standard. In a motor vehicle lease, a notice regarding wear and use substantially similar to the following: "Excessive Wear and Use. You may be charged for excessive wear based on our standards for normal use." The notice shall also specify the amount or method for determining any charge for excess mileage.
(i) Purchase option. A statement of whether or not the lessee has the option to purchase the leased property, and:
(1) End of lease term. If at the end of the lease term, the purchase price; and
(2) During lease term. If prior to the end of the lease term, the purchase price or the method for determining the price and when the lessee may exercise this option.
(j) Statement referencing nonsegregated disclosures. A statement that the lessee should refer to the lease documents for additional information on early termination, purchase options and maintenance responsibilities, warranties, late and default charges, insurance, and any security interests, if applicable.
(k) Liability between residual and realized values. A statement of the lessee's liability, if any, at early termination or at the end of the lease term for the difference between the residual value of the leased property and its realized value.
(l) Right of appraisal. If the lessee's liability at early termination or at the end of the lease term is based on the realized value of the leased property, a statement that the lessee may obtain, at the lessee's expense, a professional appraisal by an independent third party (agreed to by the lessee and the lessor) of the value that could be realized at sale of the leased property. The appraisal shall be final and binding on the parties.
(m) Liability at end of lease term based on residual value. If the lessee is liable at the end of the lease term for the difference between the residual value of the leased property and its realized value:
(1) Rent and other charges. The rent and other charges, paid by the lessee and required by the lessor as an incident to the lease transaction, with a description such as "the total amount of rent and other charges imposed in connection with your lease [state the amount]."
(2) Excess liability. A statement about a rebuttable presumption that, at the end of the lease term, the residual value of the leased property is unreasonable and not in good faith to the extent that the residual value exceeds the realized value by more than three times the base monthly payment (or more than three times the average payment allocable to a monthly period, if the lease calls for periodic payments other than monthly); and that the lessor cannot collect the excess amount unless the lessor brings a successful court action and pays the lessee's reasonable attorney's fees, or unless the excess of the residual value over the realized value is due to unreasonable or excessive wear or use of the leased property (in which case the rebuttable presumption does not apply).
(3) Mutually agreeable final adjustment. A statement that the lessee and lessor are permitted, after termination of the lease, to make any mutually agreeable final adjustment regarding excess liability.
(n) Fees and taxes. The total dollar amount for all official and license fees, registration, title, or taxes required to be paid in connection with the lease.
(o) Insurance. A brief identification of insurance in connection with the lease including:
(1) Through the lessor. If the insurance is provided by or paid through the lessor, the types and amounts of coverage and the cost to the lessee; or
(2) Through a third party. If the lessee must obtain the insurance, the types and amounts of coverage required of the lessee.
(p) Warranties or guarantees. A statement identifying all express warranties and guarantees from the manufacturer or lessor with respect to the leased property that apply to the lessee.
(q) Penalties and other charges for delinquency. The amount or the method of determining the amount of any penalty or other charge for delinquency, default, or late payments, which must be reasonable.
(r) Security interest. A description of any security interest, other than a security deposit disclosed under paragraph (b) of this section, held or to be retained by the lessor; and a clear identification of the property to which the security interest relates.
(s) Limitations on rate information. If a lessor provides a percentage rate in an advertisement or in documents evidencing the lease transaction, a notice stating that "this percentage may not measure the overall cost of financing this lease" shall accompany the rate disclosure. The lessor shall not use the term "annual percentage rate," "annual lease rate," or any equivalent term.
(t) Non-motor vehicle open-end leases. Non-motor vehicle open-end leases remain subject to section 182(10) of the Act regarding end of term liability.
§1013.5 Renegotiations, extensions, and assumptions.
(a) Renegotiation. A renegotiation occurs when a consumer lease subject to this part is satisfied and replaced by a new lease undertaken by the same consumer. A renegotiation requires new disclosures, except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section.
(b) Extension. An extension is a continuation, agreed to by the lessor and the lessee, of an existing consumer lease beyond the originally scheduled end of the lease term, except when the continuation is the result of a renegotiation. An extension that exceeds six months requires new disclosures, except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section.
(c) Assumption. New disclosures are not required when a consumer lease is assumed by another person, whether or not the lessor charges an assumption fee.
(d) Exceptions. New disclosures are not required for the following, even if they meet the definition of a renegotiation or an extension:
(1) A reduction in the rent charge;
(2) The deferment of one or more payments, whether or not a fee is charged;
(3) The extension of a lease for not more than six months on a month-to-month basis or otherwise;
(4) A substitution of leased property with property that has a substantially equivalent or greater economic value, provided no other lease terms are changed;
(5) The addition, deletion, or substitution of leased property in a multiple-item lease, provided the average periodic payment does not change by more than 25 percent; or
(6) An agreement resulting from a court proceeding.
(a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a specific lease of property at specific amounts or terms is available only if the lessor usually and customarily leases or will lease the property at those amounts or terms.
(b) Clear and conspicuous standard. Disclosures required by this section shall be made clearly and conspicuously.
(1) Amount due at lease signing or delivery. Except for the statement of a periodic payment, any affirmative or negative reference to a charge that is a part of the disclosure required under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section shall not be more prominent than that disclosure.
(2) Advertisement of a lease rate. If a lessor provides a percentage rate in an advertisement, the rate shall not be more prominent than any of the disclosures in § 1013.4, with the exception of the notice in § 1013.4(s) required to accompany the rate; and the lessor shall not use the term "annual percentage rate," "annual lease rate," or equivalent term.
(c) Catalogs or other multipage advertisements; electronic advertisements. A catalog or other multipage advertisement, or an electronic advertisement (such as an advertisement appearing on an Internet Web site), that provides a table or schedule of the required disclosures shall be considered a single advertisement if, for lease terms that appear without all the required disclosures, the advertisement refers to the page or pages on which the table or schedule appears.
(d) Advertisement of terms that require additional disclosure. (1) Triggering terms. An advertisement that states any of the following items shall contain the disclosures required by paragraph (d)(2) of this section, except as provided in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section:
(i) The amount of any payment; or
(ii) A statement of any capitalized cost reduction or other payment (or that no payment is required) prior to or at consummation or by delivery, if delivery occurs after consummation.
(2) Additional terms. An advertisement stating any item listed in paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall also state the following items:
(i) That the transaction advertised is a lease;
(ii) The total amount due prior to or at consummation or by delivery, if delivery occurs after consummation;
(iii) The number, amounts, and due dates or periods of scheduled payments under the lease;
(iv) A statement of whether or not a security deposit is required; and
(v) A statement that an extra charge may be imposed at the end of the lease term where the lessee's liability (if any) is based on the difference between the residual value of the leased property and its realized value at the end of the lease term.
(e) Alternative disclosures--merchandise tags. A merchandise tag stating any item listed in paragraph (d)(1) of this section may comply with paragraph (d)(2) of this section by referring to a sign or display prominently posted in the lessor's place of business that contains a table or schedule of the required disclosures.
(f) Alternative disclosures--television or radio advertisements--(1) Toll-free number or print advertisement. An advertisement made through television or radio stating any item listed in paragraph (d)(1) of this section complies with paragraph (d)(2) of this section if the advertisement states the items listed in paragraphs (d)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section, and:
(i) Lists a toll-free telephone number along with a reference that such number may be used by consumers to obtain the information required by paragraph (d)(2) of this section; or
(ii) Directs the consumer to a written advertisement in a publication of general circulation in the community served by the media station, including the name and the date of the publication, with a statement that information required by paragraph (d)(2) of this section is included in the advertisement. The written advertisement shall be published beginning at least three days before and ending at least ten days after the broadcast.
(ii) The lessor shall provide the information required by paragraph (d)(2) of this section orally, or in writing upon request.
§1013.8 Record retention.
A lessor shall retain evidence of compliance with the requirements imposed by this part, other than the advertising requirements under § 1013.7, for a period of not less than two years after the date the disclosures are required to be made or an action is required to be taken.
§1013.9 Relation to state laws.
(a) Inconsistent state law. A state law that is inconsistent with the requirements of the Act and this part is preempted to the extent of the inconsistency. If a lessor cannot comply with a state law without violating a provision of this part, the state law is inconsistent within the meaning of section 186(a) of the Act and is preempted, unless the state law gives greater protection and benefit to the consumer. A state, through an official having primary enforcement or interpretative responsibilities for the state consumer leasing law, may apply to the Bureau for a preemption determination.
(b) Exemptions--(1) Application. A state may apply to the Bureau for an exemption from the requirements of the Act and this part for any class of lease transactions within the state. The Bureau will grant such an exemption if the Bureau determines that:
(i) The class of leasing transactions is subject to state law requirements substantially similar to the Act and this part or that lessees are afforded greater protection under state law; and
(ii) There is adequate provision for state enforcement.
(2) Enforcement and liability. After an exemption has been granted, the requirements of the applicable state law (except for additional requirements not imposed by Federal law) will constitute the requirements of the Act and this part. No exemption will extend to the civil liability provisions of sections 130, 131, and 185 of the Act.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 1013.9]