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2000 - Rules and Regulations



PART 349—DERIVATIVES

SUBPART A—MARGIN AND CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COVERED SWAP ENTITIES

Sec.

349.1 Authority, purpose, scope, exemptions and compliance dates.
349.2 Definitions.
349.3 Initial margin.
349.4 Variation margin.
349.5 Netting arrangements, minimum transfer amount and satisfaction of collecting and posting requirements.
349.6 Eligible collateral.
349.7 Segregation of collateral.
349.8 Initial margin models and standardized amounts.
349.9 Cross-border application of margin requirements.
349.10 Documentation of margin matters.
349.11 Special rules for affiliates.
349.12 Capital.
Appendix A to Part 349—Standardized Initial Margin Requirements for Non-Cleared Swaps  and Non-Cleared Security-Baded Swaps
Appendix B to Part 349—Margin Values for Cash and Eligible Noncash Margin Collateral

AUTHORITY:  7 U.S.C. 6s(e), 15 U.S.C. 78o--10(e), and 12 U.S.C. 1818 and 12 U.S.C. 1819(a)(Tenth), 12 U.S.C.1813(q), 1818, 1819, and 3108.

SOURCE:  The provision of this part 349, Subpart A is added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74898, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016.

Subpart B—Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

Sec.

349.13 Authority, purpose, and scope.
349.14 Definitions.
349.15 Prohibited transactions.
349.16 Filing procedures.
349.17 Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.
349.18 Disclosure.
349.19 Recordkeeping.
349.20 Capital requirements.
349.21 Margin requirements.
349.22 Required reporting to customers.
349.23 Unlawful representations.
349.24 Authorization to trade.
349.25 Trading and operational standards.
349.26 Supervision.
349.27 Notice of transfers.
349.28 Customer dispute resolution.

AUTHORITY:  12 U.S.C. 1813(q), 1818, 1819, and 3108; 7 U.S.C. 2(c)(2)(E), 27 et. seq.

SOURCE:  The provisions of this Part 349 appear at 76 Fed. Reg. 40789, July 12, 2011, effective July 15, 2011. Part 349, is revised at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016.

Subpart A—MARGIN AND CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COVERED SWAP ENTITIES

§ 349.1  Authority, purpose, scope, exemptions and compliance dates.

(a)  Authority. This subpart is issued by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) under section 4s(e) of the Commodity Exchange Act (7 U.S.C. 6s(e)), section 15F(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78o--10(e)), and section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1818).

(b)  Purpose. Section 4s of the Commodity Exchange Act (7 U.S.C. 6s) and section 15F of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78o--10) require the FDIC to establish capital and margin requirements for any FDIC-insured state-chartered bank that is not a member of the Federal Reserve System or FDIC-insured state-chartered savings association that is registered as a swap dealer, major swap participant, security-based swap dealer, or major security-based swap participant with respect to all non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps. This subpart implements section 4s of the Commodity Exchange Act and section 15F of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 by defining terms used in the statutes and related terms, establishing capital and margin requirements, and explaining the statutes' requirements.

(c)  Scope. This subpart establishes minimum capital and margin requirements for each covered swap entity subject to this subpart with respect to all non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps. This subpart applies to any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap entered into by a covered swap entity on or after the relevant compliance date set forth in paragraph (e) of this section. Nothing in this subpart is intended to prevent a covered swap entity from collecting margin in amounts greater than are required under this subpart.

(d)  Exemptions--(1)  Swaps. The requirements of this part (except for § l.12) shall not apply to a non-cleared swap if the counterparty:

(i)  Qualifies for an exception from clearing under section 2(h)(7)(A) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 2(h)(7)(A)) and implementing regulations;

(ii)  Qualifies for an exemption from clearing under a rule, regulation, or order that the Commodity Futures Trading Commission issued pursuant to its authority under section 4(c)(1) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 6(c)(1)) concerning cooperative entities that would otherwise be subject to the requirements of section 2(h)(1)(A) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 2(h)(1)(A)); or (iii) Satisfies the criteria in section 2(h)(7)(D) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 2(h)(7)(D)) and implementing regulations.

(2)  Security-based swaps. The requirements of this part (except for § l.12) shall not apply to a non-cleared security-based swap if the counterparty:

(i)  Qualifies for an exception from clearing under section 3C(g)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c--3(g)(1)) and implementing regulations; or

(ii)  Satisfies the criteria in section 3C(g)(4) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c--3(g)(4)) and implementing regulations.

(e)  Compliance dates. Covered swap entities shall comply with the minimum margin requirements of this subpart on or before the following dates for non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps entered into on or after the following dates:

(1)  September 1, 2016 with respect to the requirements in § ll.3 for initial margin and § 349.4 for variation margin for any non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps, where both:

(i)  The covered swap entity combined with all its affiliates; and

(ii)  Its counterparty combined with all its affiliates, have an average daily aggregate notional amount of non- cleared swaps, non-cleared security-based swaps, foreign exchange forwards and foreign exchange swaps for March, April and May 2016 that exceeds $3 trillion, where such amounts are calculated only for business days; and

(iii)  In calculating the amounts in paragraphs (e)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section, an entity shall count the average daily aggregate notional amount of a non-cleared swap, a non-cleared security-based swap, a foreign exchange forward or a foreign exchange swap between the entity and an affiliate only one time, and shall not count a swap or security-based swap that is exempt pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section.

(2)  March 1, 2017 with respect to the requirements in § ll.4 for variation margin for any other covered swap entity with respect to non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps entered into with any other counterparty.

(3)  September 1, 2017 with respect to the requirements in § ll.3 for initial margin for any non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps, where both:

(i)  The covered swap entity combined with all its affiliates; and

(ii)  Its counterparty combined with all its affiliates, have an average daily aggregate notional amount of non-cleared swaps, non-cleared security-based swaps, foreign exchange forwards and foreign exchange swaps for March, April and May 2017 that exceeds $2.25 trillion, where such amounts are calculated only for business days; and

(iii)  In calculating the amounts in paragraphs (e)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section, an entity shall count the average daily aggregate notional amount of a non-cleared swap, a non-cleared security-based swap, a foreign exchange forward or a foreign exchange swap between the entity and an affiliate only one time, and shall not count a swap or security-based swap that is exempt pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section.

(4)  September 1, 2018 with respect to the requirements in § 349.3 for initial margin for any non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps, where both:

(i)  The covered swap entity combined with all its affiliates; and

(ii)  Its counterparty combined with all its affiliates, have an average daily aggregate notional amount of non-cleared swaps, non-cleared security-based swaps, foreign exchange forwards and foreign exchange swaps for March, April and May 2018 that exceeds $1.5 trillion, where such amounts are calculated only for business days; and

(iii)  In calculating the amounts in paragraphs (e)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section, an entity shall count the average daily aggregate notional amount of a non-cleared swap, a non-cleared security-based swap, a foreign exchange forward or a foreign exchange swap between the entity and an affiliate only one time, and shall not count a swap or security-based swap that is exempt pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section.

(5)  September 1, 2019 with respect to the requirements in § 349.3 for initial margin for any non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps, where both:

(i)  The covered swap entity combined with all its affiliates; and

(ii)  Its counterparty combined with all its affiliates, have an average daily aggregate notional amount of non-cleared swaps, non-cleared security-based swaps, foreign exchange forwards and foreign exchange swaps for March, April and May 2019 that exceeds $0.75 trillion, where such amounts are calculated only for business days; and

(iii)  In calculating the amounts in paragraphs (e)(5)(i) and (ii) of this section, an entity shall count the average daily aggregate notional amount of a non-cleared swap, a non-cleared security-based swap, a foreign exchange forward or a foreign exchange swap between the entity and an affiliate only one time, and shall not count a swap or security-based swap that is exempt pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section.

(6)  September 1, 2020 with respect to the requirements in § 349.3 for initial margin for any other covered swap entity with respect to non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps entered into with any other counterparty.

(f)  Once a covered swap entity must comply with the margin requirements for non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps with respect to a particular counterparty based on the compliance dates in paragraph (e) of this section, the covered swap entity shall remain subject to the requirements of this subpart with respect to that counterparty.

(g)(1)  If a covered swap entity's counterparty changes its status such that a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap with that counterparty becomes subject to stricter margin requirements under this subpart (such as if the counterparty's status changes from a financial end user without material swaps exposure to a financial end user with material swaps exposure), then the covered swap entity shall comply with the stricter margin requirements for any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap entered into with that counterparty after the counterparty changes its status.

(2)  If a covered swap entity's counterparty changes its status such that a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap with that counterparty becomes subject to less strict margin requirements under this subpart (such as if the counterparty's status changes from a financial end user with material swaps exposure to a financial end user without material swaps exposure), then the covered swap entity may comply with the less strict margin requirements for any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap entered into with that counterparty after the counterparty changes its status as well as for any outstanding non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap entered into after the applicable compliance date in paragraph (e) of this section and before the counterparty changed its status.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.1]

[Section 349.1 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74898, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]

§ 349.2  Definitions.

Affiliate. A company is an affiliate of another company if:

(1)  Either company consolidates the other on financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, the International Financial Reporting Standards, or other similar standards;

(2)  Both companies are consolidated with a third company on a financial statement prepared in accordance with such principles or standards;

(3)  For a company that is not subject to such principles or standards, if consolidation as described in paragraph (1) or (2) of this definition would have occurred if such principles or standards had applied; or

(4)  [The Agency] has determined that a company is an affiliate of another company, based on [Agency's] conclusion that either company provides significant support to, or is materially subject to the risks or losses of, the other company.

Bank holding company has the meaning specified in section 2 of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1841).

Broker has the meaning specified in section 3(a)(4) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(4)).

Business day means any day other than a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.

Clearing agency has the meaning specified in section 3(a)(23) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(23)).

Company mean FDIC's a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, special purpose entity, association, or similar organization.

Counterparty means, with respect to any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap to which a person is a party, each other party to such non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap.

Covered swap entity means any FDIC-insured state-chartered bank that is not a member of the Federal Reserve System or FDIC-insured state-chartered savings association that is a swap entity, or any other entity that the FDIC determines.

Cross-currency swap means a swap in which one party exchanges with another party principal and interest rate payments in one currency for principal and interest rate payments in another currency, and the exchange of principal occurs on the date the swap is entered into, with a reversal of the exchange of principal at a later date that is agreed upon when the swap is entered into.

Currency of settlement means a currency in which a party has agreed to discharge payment obligations related to a non-cleared swap, a non-cleared security-based swap, a group of non-cleared swaps, or a group of non-cleared security-based swaps subject to a master agreement at the regularly occurring dates on which such payments are due in the ordinary course.

Day of execution means the calendar day at the time the parties enter into a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap, provided:

(1)  If each party is in a different calendar day at the time the parties enter into the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap, the day of execution is deemed the latter of the two dates; and

(2)  If a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap is:

(i)  Entered into after 4:00 p.m. in the location of a party; or

(ii)  Entered into on a day that is not a business day in the location of a party, then the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap is deemed to have been entered into on the immediately succeeding day that is a business day for both parties, and both parties shall determine the day of execution with reference to that business day.

Dealer has the meaning specified in section 3(a)(5) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(5)).

Depository institution has the meaning specified in section 3(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(c)).

Derivatives clearing organization has the meaning specified in section 1a(15) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 1a(15)).

Eligible collateral means collateral described in § 349.6.

Eligible master netting agreement means a written, legally enforceable agreement provided that:

(1)  The agreement creates a single legal obligation for all individual transactions covered by the agreement upon an event of default following any stay permitted by paragraph (2) of this definition, including upon an event of receivership, conservatorship, insolvency, liquidation, or similar proceeding, of the counterparty;

(2)  The agreement provides the covered swap entity the right to accelerate, terminate, and close-out on a net basis all transactions under the agreement and to liquidate or set-off collateral promptly upon an event of default, including upon an event of receivership, conservatorship, insolvency, liquidation, or similar proceeding, of the counterparty, provided that, in any such case, any exercise of rights under the agreement will not be stayed or avoided under applicable law in the relevant jurisdictions, other than:

(i)  In receivership, conservatorship, or resolution under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.), Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (12 U.S.C. 5381 et seq.), the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, as amended (12 U.S.C. 4617), or the Farm Credit Act of 1971, as amended (12 U.S.C. 2183 and 2279cc), or laws of foreign jurisdictions that are substantially similar to the U.S. laws referenced in this paragraph (2)(i) in order to facilitate the orderly resolution of the defaulting counterparty; or

(ii)  Where the agreement is subject by its terms to, or incorporates, any of the laws referenced in paragraph (2)(i) of this definition;

(3)  The agreement does not contain a walkaway clause (that is, a provision that permits a non-defaulting counterparty to make a lower payment than it otherwise would make under the agreement, or no payment at all, to a defaulter or the estate of a defaulter, even if the defaulter or the estate of the defaulter is a net creditor under the agreement); and

(4)  A covered swap entity that relies on the agreement for purposes of calculating the margin required by this part must:

(i)  Conduct sufficient legal review to conclude with a well-founded basis (and maintain sufficient written documentation of that legal review) that:

(A)  The agreement meets the requirements of paragraph (2) of this definition; and

(B)  In the event of a legal challenge (including one resulting from default or from receivership, conservatorship, insolvency, liquidation, or similar proceeding), the relevant court and administrative authorities would find the agreement to be legal, valid, binding, and enforceable under the law of the relevant jurisdictions; and

(ii)  Establish and maintain written procedures to monitor possible changes in relevant law and to ensure that the agreement continues to satisfy the requirements of this definition.

Financial end user means:

(1)  Any counterparty that is not a swap entity and that is:

(i)  A bank holding company or an affiliate thereof; a savings and loan holding company; a U.S. intermediate holding company established or designated for purposes of compliance with 12 CFR 252.153; or a nonbank financial institution supervised by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System under Title I of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (12 U.S.C. 5323);

(ii)  A depository institution; a foreign bank; a Federal credit union or State credit union as defined in section 2 of the Federal Credit Union Act (12 U.S.C. 1752(1) & (6)); an institution that functions solely in a trust or fiduciary capacity as described in section 2(c)(2)(D) of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1841(c)(2)(D)); an industrial loan company, an industrial bank, or other similar institution described in section 2(c)(2)(H) of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1841(c)(2)(H));

(iii)  An entity that is state-licensed or registered as:

(A)  A credit or lending entity, including a finance company; money lender; installment lender; consumer lender or lending company; mortgage lender, broker, or bank; motor vehicle title pledge lender; payday or deferred deposit lender; premium finance company; commercial finance or lending company; or commercial mortgage company; except entities registered or licensed solely on account of financing the entity's direct sales of goods or services to customers;

(B)  A money services business, including a check casher; money transmitter; currency dealer or exchange; or money order or traveler's check issuer;

(iv)  A regulated entity as defined in section 1303(20) of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, as amended (12 U.S.C. 4502(20)) or any entity for which the Federal Housing Finance Agency or its successor is the primary federal regulator;

(v)  Any institution chartered in accordance with the Farm Credit Act of 1971, as amended, 12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq., that is regulated by the Farm Credit Administration;

(vi)  A securities holding company; a broker or dealer; an investment adviser as defined in section 202(a) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80b--2(a)); an investment company registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a--1 et seq.); or a company that has elected to be regulated as a business development company pursuant to section 54(a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a--53(a));

(vii)  A private fund as defined in section 202(a) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80--b-- 2(a)); an entity that would be an investment company under section 3 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a--3) but for section 3(c)(5)(C); or an entity that is deemed not to be an investment company under section 3 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 pursuant to Investment Company Act Rule 3a--7 (17 CFR 270.3a--7) of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission;

(viii)  A commodity pool, a commodity pool operator, or a commodity trading advisor as defined, respectively, in section 1a(10), 1a(11), and 1a(12) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 1a(10), 1a(11), and 1a(12)); a floor broker, a floor trader, or introducing broker as defined, respectively, in 1a(22), 1a(23) and 1a(31) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 1a(22), 1a(23), and 1a(31)); or a futures commission merchant as defined in 1a(28) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 1a(28));

(ix)  An employee benefit plan as defined in paragraphs (3) and (32) of section 3 of the Employee Retirement Income and Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1002);

(x)  An entity that is organized as an insurance company, primarily engaged in writing insurance or reinsuring risks underwritten by insurance companies, or is subject to supervision as such by a State insurance regulator or foreign insurance regulator;

(xi)  An entity, person or arrangement that is, or holds itself out as being, an entity, person, or arrangement that raises money from investors, accepts money from clients, or uses its own money primarily for the purpose of investing or trading or facilitating the investing or trading in loans, securities, swaps, funds or other assets for resale or other disposition or otherwise trading in loans, securities, swaps, funds or other assets; or

(xii)  An entity that would be a financial end user described in paragraph (1) of this definition or a swap entity, if it were organized under the laws of the United States or any State thereof.

(2)  The term "financial end user" does not include any counterparty that is:

(i)  A sovereign entity;

(ii)  A multilateral development bank;

(iii)  The Bank for International Settlements;

(iv)  An entity that is exempt from the definition of financial entity pursuant to section 2(h)(7)(C)(iii) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 2(h)(7)(C)(iii)) and implementing regulations; or

(v)  An affiliate that qualifies for the exemption from clearing pursuant to section 2(h)(7)(D) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 2(h)(7)(D)) or section 3C(g)(4) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c--3(g)(4)) and implementing regulations.

Foreign bank means an organization that is organized under the laws of a foreign country and that engages directly in the business of banking outside the United States.

Foreign exchange forward has the meaning specified in section 1a(24) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 1a(24)).

Foreign exchange swap has the meaning specified in section 1a(25) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 1a(25)).

Initial margin means the collateral as calculated in accordance with § 349.8 that is posted or collected in connection with a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap.

Initial margin collection amount means:

(1)  In the case of a covered swap entity that does not use an initial margin model, the amount of initial margin with respect to a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap that is required under appendix A of this subpart; and

(2)  In the case of a covered swap entity that uses an initial margin model pursuant to § 349.8, the amount of initial margin with respect to a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap that is required under the initial margin model.

Initial margin model means an internal risk management model that:

(1)  Has been developed and designed to identify an appropriate, risk-based amount of initial margin that the covered swap entity must collect with respect to one or more non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps to which the covered swap entity is a party; and

(2)  Has been approved by FDIC pursuant to § 349.8.

Initial margin threshold amount means an aggregate credit exposure of $50 million resulting from all non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps between a covered swap entity and its affiliates, and a counterparty and its affiliates. For purposes of this calculation, an entity shall not count a swap or security-based swap that is exempt pursuant to § 349.1(d).

Major currency means:

(1)  United States Dollar (USD);

(2)  Canadian Dollar (CAD);

(3)  Euro (EUR);

(4)  United Kingdom Pound (GBP);

(5)  Japanese Yen (JPY);

(6)  Swiss Franc (CHF);

(7)  New Zealand Dollar (NZD);

(8)  Australian Dollar (AUD);

(9)  Swedish Kronor (SEK);

(10)  Danish Kroner (DKK);

(11)  Norwegian Krone (NOK); or

(12)  Any other currency as determined by FDIC.

Margin means initial margin and variation margin.

Market intermediary means a securities holding company; a broker or dealer; a futures commission merchant as defined in 1a(28) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 1a(28)); a swap dealer as defined in section 1a(49) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 1a(49)); or a security-based swap dealer as defined in section 3(a)(71) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(71)).

Material swaps exposure for an entity means that an entity and its affiliates have an average daily aggregate notional amount of non-cleared swaps, non-cleared security-based swaps, foreign exchange forwards, and foreign exchange swaps with all counterparties for June, July, and August of the previous calendar year that exceeds $8 billion, where such amount is calculated only for business days. An entity shall count the average daily aggregate notional amount of a non-cleared swap, a non-cleared security-based swap, a foreign exchange forward or a foreign exchange swap between the entity and an affiliate only one time. For purposes of this calculation, an entity shall not count a swap or security-based swap that is exempt pursuant to § 349.1(d).

Multilateral development bank means the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, the International Finance Corporation, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the African Development Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund, the Nordic Investment Bank, the Caribbean Development Bank, the Islamic Development Bank, the Council of Europe Development Bank, and any other entity that provides financing for national or regional development in which the U.S. government is a shareholder or contributing member or which FDIC determines poses comparable credit risk.

Non-cleared swap means a swap that is not cleared by a derivatives clearing organization registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission pursuant to section 5b(a) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 7a--1(a)) or by a clearing organization that the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has exempted from registration by rule or order pursuant to section 5b(h) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 7a--1(h)).

Non-cleared security-based swap means a security-based swap that is not, directly or indirectly, submitted to and cleared by a clearing agency registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to section 17A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78q--1) or by a clearing agency that the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission has exempted from registration by rule or order pursuant to section 17A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78q--1).

Prudential regulator has the meaning specified in section 1a(39) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 1a(39)).

Savings and loan holding company has the meaning specified in section 10(n) of the Home Owners' Loan Act (12 U.S.C. 1467a(n)).

Securities holding company has the meaning specified in section 618 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (12 U.S.C. 1850a).

Security-based swap has the meaning specified in section 3(a)(68) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(68)).

Sovereign entity means a central government (including the U.S. government) or an agency, department, ministry, or central bank of a central government.

State means any State, commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, or the United States Virgin Islands.

Subsidiary. A company is a subsidiary of another company if:

(1)  The company is consolidated by the other company on financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, the International Financial Reporting Standards, or other similar standards;

(2)  For a company that is not subject to such principles or standards, if consolidation as described in paragraph (1) of this definition would have occurred if such principles or standards had applied; or

(3)  [The Agency] has determined that the company is a subsidiary of another company, based on FDIC's conclusion that either company provides significant support to, or is materially subject to the risks of loss of, the other company.

Swap has the meaning specified in section 1a(47) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 1a(47)).

Swap entity means a person that is registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission as a swap dealer or major swap participant pursuant to the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 1 et seq.), or a person that is registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission as a security-based swap dealer or a major security-based swap participant pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.).

U.S. Government-sponsored enterprise means an entity established or chartered by the U.S. government to serve public purposes specified by federal statute but whose debt obligations are not explicitly guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government.

Variation margin means collateral provided by one party to its counterparty to meet the performance of its obligations under one or more non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps between the parties as a result of a change in value of such obligations since the last time such collateral was provided.

Variation margin amount means the cumulative mark-to-market change in value to a covered swap entity of a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap, as measured from the date it is entered into (or, in the case of a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap that has a positive or negative value to a covered swap entity on the date it is entered into, such positive or negative value plus any cumulative mark-to-market change in value to the covered swap entity of a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap after such date), less the value of all variation margin previously collected, plus the value of all variation margin previously posted with respect to such non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.2]

[Section 349.2 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 79413, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]

§ 349.3  Initial margin.

(a)  Collection of margin. A covered swap entity shall collect initial margin with respect to any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap from a counterparty that is a financial end user with material swaps exposure or that is a swap entity in an amount that is no less than the greater of:

(1)  Zero; or

(2)  The initial margin collection amount for such non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap less the initial margin threshold amount (not including any portion of the initial margin threshold amount already applied by the covered swap entity or its affiliates to other non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps with the counterparty or its affiliates), as applicable.

(b)  Posting of margin. A covered swap entity shall post initial margin with respect to any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap to a counterparty that is a financial end user with material swaps exposure. Such initial margin shall be in an amount at least as large as the covered swap entity would be required to collect under paragraph (a) of this section if it were in the place of the counterparty.

(c)  Timing. A covered swap entity shall comply with the initial margin requirements described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section on each business day, for a period beginning on or before the business day following the day of execution and ending on the date the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap terminates or expires.

(d)  Other counterparties. A covered swap entity is not required to collect or post initial margin with respect to any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap described in § 349.1(d). For any other non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap between a covered swap entity and a counterparty that is neither a financial end user with a material swaps exposure nor a swap entity, the covered swap entity shall collect initial margin at such times and in such forms and such amounts (if any), that the covered swap entity determines appropriately addresses the credit risk posed by the counterparty and the risks of such non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.3]

[Section 349.3 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74902, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]

§ 349.4  Variation margin.

(a)  General. After the date on which a covered swap entity enters into a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap with a swap entity or financial end user, the covered swap entity shall collect variation margin equal to the variation margin amount from the counterparty to such non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap when the amount is positive and post variation margin equal to the variation margin amount to the counterparty to such non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap when the amount is negative.

(b)  Timing. A covered swap entity shall comply with the variation margin requirements described in paragraph (a) of this section on each business day, for a period beginning on or before the business day following the day of execution and ending on the date the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security based swap terminates or expires.

(c)  Other counterparties. A covered swap entity is not required to collect or post variation margin with respect to any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap described in § 349.1(d). For any other non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap between a covered swap entity and a counterparty that is neither a financial end user nor a swap entity, the covered swap entity shall collect variation margin at such times and in such forms and such amounts (if any), that the covered swap entity determines appropriately addresses the credit risk posed by the counterparty and the risks of such non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.4]

[Section 349.4 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74902, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]

§ 349.5  Netting arrangements, minimum transfer amount, and satisfaction of collecting and posting requirements.

(a)  Netting arrangements. (1)  For purposes of calculating and complying with the initial margin requirements of § 349.3 using an initial margin model as described in § 349.8, or with the variation margin requirements of § 349.4, a covered swap entity may net non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps in accordance with this subsection.

(2)  To the extent that one or more non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps are executed pursuant to an eligible master netting agreement between a covered swap entity and its counterparty that is a swap entity or financial end user, a covered swap entity may calculate and comply with the applicable requirements of this subpart on an aggregate net basis with respect to all non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps governed by such agreement, subject to paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(3)(i)  Except as permitted in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, if an eligible master netting agreement covers non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps entered into on or after the applicable compliance date set forth in § 349.1(e) or (g), all the non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps covered by that agreement are subject to the requirements of this subpart and included in the aggregate netting portfolio for the purposes of calculating and complying with the margin requirements of this subpart.

(ii)  An eligible master netting agreement may identify one or more separate netting portfolios that independently meet the requirements in paragraph (1) of the definition of "Eligible master netting agreement" in § 349.2 and to which collection and posting of margin applies on an aggregate net basis separate from and exclusive of any other non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps covered by the eligible master netting agreement. Any such netting portfolio that contains any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap entered into on or after the applicable compliance date set forth in § 349.1(e) or (g) is subject to the requirements of this subpart. Any such netting portfolio that contains only non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps entered into before the applicable compliance date is not subject to the requirements of this subpart.

(4)  If a covered swap entity cannot conclude after sufficient legal review with a well-founded basis that the netting agreement described in this section meets the definition of eligible master netting agreement set forth in § 349.2, the covered swap entity must treat the non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security based swaps covered by the agreement on a gross basis for the purposes of calculating and complying with the requirements of this subpart to collect margin, but the covered swap entity may net those non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps in accordance with paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) of this section for the purposes of calculating and complying with the requirements of this subpart to post margin.

(b)  Minimum transfer amount. Notwithstanding § 349.3 or § 349.4, a covered swap entity is not required to collect or post margin pursuant to this subpart with respect to a particular counterparty unless and until the combined amount of initial margin and variation margin that is required pursuant to this subpart to be collected or posted and that has not yet been collected or posted with respect to the counterparty is greater than $500,000.

(c)  Satisfaction of collecting and posting requirements. A covered swap entity shall not be deemed to have violated its obligation to collect or post margin from or to a counterparty under § 349.3, § 349.4, or § 349.6(e) if:

(1)  The counterparty has refused or otherwise failed to provide or accept the required margin to or from the covered swap entity; and

(2)  The covered swap entity has:

(i)  Made the necessary efforts to collect or post the required margin, including the timely initiation and continued pursuit of formal dispute resolution mechanisms, or has otherwise demonstrated upon request to the satisfaction of FDIC that it has made appropriate efforts to collect or post the required margin; or

(ii)  Commenced termination of the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap with the counterparty promptly following the applicable cure period and notification requirements.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.5]

[Section 349.5 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74902, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]

§ 349.6  Eligible collateral.

(a)  Non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps with a swap entity. For a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap with a swap entity, a covered swap entity shall collect initial margin and variation margin required pursuant to this part solely in the form of the following types of collateral:

(1)  Immediately available cash funds that are denominated in:

(i)  U.S. dollars or another major currency; or

(ii)  The currency of settlement for the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap;

(2)  With respect to initial margin only:

(i)  A security that is issued by, or unconditionally guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by, the U.S. Department of the Treasury;

(ii)  A security that is issued by, or unconditionally guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by, a U.S. government agency (other than the U.S. Department of Treasury) whose obligations are fully guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the United States government;

(iii)  A security that is issued by, or fully guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by, the European Central Bank or a sovereign entity that is assigned no higher than a 20 percent risk weight under the capital rules applicable to the covered swap entity as set forth in § 349.12;

(iv)  A publicly traded debt security issued by, or an asset-backed security fully guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by, a U.S. Government-sponsored enterprise that is operating with capital support or another form of direct financial assistance received from the U.S. government that enables the repayments of the U.S. Government-sponsored enterprise's eligible securities;

(v)  A publicly traded debt security that meets the terms of 12 CFR. 1.2(d) and is issued by a U.S. Government-sponsored enterprise not operating with capital support or another form of direct financial assistance from the U.S. government, and is not an asset-backed security;

(vi)  A security that is issued by, or fully guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by, the Bank for International Settlements, the International Monetary Fund, or a multilateral development bank;

(vii)  A security solely in the form of:

(A)  Publicly traded debt not otherwise described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section that meets the terms of 12 CFR 1.2(d) and is not an asset-backed security;

(B)  Publicly traded common equity that is included in:

(1)  The Standard & Poor's Composite 1500 Index or any other similar index of liquid and readily marketable equity securities as determined by FDIC; or

(2)  An index that a covered swap entity's supervisor in a foreign jurisdiction recognizes for purposes of including publicly traded common equity as initial margin under applicable regulatory policy, if held in that foreign jurisdiction;

(viii)  Securities in the form of redeemable securities in a pooled investment fund representing the security-holder's proportional interest in the fund's net assets and that are issued and redeemed only on the basis of the market value of the fund's net assets prepared each business day after the security-holder makes its investment commitment or redemption request to the fund, if:

(A)  The fund's investments are limited to the following:

(1)  Securities that are issued by, or unconditionally guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by, the U.S. Department of the Treasury, and immediately-available cash funds denominated in U.S. dollars; or

(2)  Securities denominated in a common currency and issued by, or fully guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by, the European Central Bank or a sovereign entity that is assigned no higher than a 20 percent risk weight under the capital rules applicable to the covered swap entity as set forth in § 349.12, and immediately-available cash funds denominated in the same currency; and

(B)  Assets of the fund may not be transferred through securities lending, securities borrowing, repurchase agreements, reverse repurchase agreements, or other means that involve the fund having rights to acquire the same or similar assets from the transferee; or

(ix)  Gold.

(b)  Non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps with a financial end user. For a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap with a financial end user, a covered swap entity shall collect and post initial margin and variation margin required pursuant to this subpart solely in the form of the following types of collateral:

(1)  Immediately available cash funds that are denominated in:

(i)  U.S. dollars or another major currency; or

(ii)  The currency of settlement for the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap;

(2)  A security that is issued by, or unconditionally guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by, the U.S. Department of the Treasury;

(3)  A security that is issued by, or unconditionally guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by, a U.S. government agency (other than the U.S. Department of Treasury) whose obligations are fully guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the United States government;

(4)  A security that is issued by, or fully guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by, the European Central Bank or a sovereign entity that is assigned no higher than a 20 percent risk weight under the capital rules applicable to the covered swap entity as set forth in § 349.12;

(5)  A publicly traded debt security issued by, or an asset-backed security fully guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by, a U.S. Government-sponsored enterprise that is operating with capital support or another form of direct financial assistance received from the U.S. government that enables the repayments of the U.S. Government-sponsored enterprise's eligible securities;

(6)  A publicly traded debt security that meets the terms of 12 CFR 1.2(d) and is issued by a U.S. Government-sponsored enterprise not operating with capital support or another form of direct financial assistance from the U.S. government, and is not an asset-backed security;

(7)  A security that is issued by, or fully guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by, the Bank for International Settlements, the International Monetary Fund, or a multilateral development bank;

(8)  A security solely in the form of:

(i)  Publicly traded debt not otherwise described in this paragraph (b) that meets the terms of 12 CFR 1.2(d) and is not an asset-backed security;

(ii)  Publicly traded common equity that is included in:

(A)  The Standard & Poor's Composite 1500 Index or any other similar index of liquid and readily marketable equity securities as determined by FDIC; or

(B)  An index that a covered swap entity's supervisor in a foreign jurisdiction recognizes for purposes of including publicly traded common equity as initial margin under applicable regulatory policy, if held in that foreign jurisdiction;

(9)  Securities in the form of redeemable securities in a pooled investment fund representing the security-holder's proportional interest in the fund's net assets and that are issued and redeemed only on the basis of the market value of the fund's net assets prepared each business day after the security-holder makes its investment commitment or redemption request to the fund, if:

(i)  The fund's investments are limited to the following:

(A)  Securities that are issued by, or unconditionally guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by, the U.S. Department of the Treasury, and immediately-available cash funds denominated in U.S. dollars; or

(B)  Securities denominated in a common currency and issued by, or fully guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest by, the European Central Bank or a sovereign entity that is assigned no higher than a 20 percent risk weight under the capital rules applicable to the covered swap entity as set forth in § 349.12, and immediately available cash funds denominated in the same currency; and

(ii)  Assets of the fund may not be transferred through securities lending, securities borrowing, repurchase agreements, reverse repurchase agreements, or other means that involve the fund having rights to acquire the same or similar assets from the transferee; or

(10)  Gold.

(c)(1)  The value of any eligible collateral collected or posted to satisfy margin requirements pursuant to this subpart is subject to the sum of the following discounts, as applicable:

(i)  An 8 percent discount for variation margin collateral denominated in a currency that is not the currency of settlement for the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap, except for immediately available cash funds denominated in U.S. dollars or another major currency;

(ii)  An 8 percent discount for initial margin collateral denominated in a currency that is not the currency of settlement for the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap, except for eligible types of collateral denominated in a single termination currency designated as payable to the non-posting counterparty as part of the eligible master netting agreement; and

(iii)  For variation and initial margin non-cash collateral, the discounts described in appendix B of this subpart.

(2)  The value of variation margin or initial margin collateral is computed as the product of the cash or market value of the eligible collateral asset times one minus the applicable discounts pursuant to paragraph (c)(1) of this section expressed in percentage terms. The total value of all variation margin or initial margin collateral is calculated as the sum of those values for each eligible collateral asset.

(d)  Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, eligible collateral for initial margin and variation margin required by this subpart does not include a security issued by:

(1)  The party or an affiliate of the party pledging such collateral;

(2)  A bank holding company, a savings and loan holding company, a U.S. intermediate holding company established or designated for purposes of compliance with 12 CFR 252.153, a foreign bank, a depository institution, a market intermediary, a company that would be any of the foregoing if it were organized under the laws of the United States or any State, or an affiliate of any of the foregoing institutions; or

(3)  A nonbank financial institution supervised by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System under Title I of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (12 U.S.C. 5323).

(e)  A covered swap entity shall monitor the market value and eligibility of all collateral collected and posted to satisfy the minimum initial margin and minimum variation margin requirements of this subpart. To the extent that the market value of such collateral has declined, the covered swap entity shall promptly collect or post such additional eligible collateral as is necessary to maintain compliance with the margin requirements of this subpart. To the extent that the collateral is no longer eligible, the covered swap entity shall promptly collect or post sufficient eligible replacement collateral to comply with the margin requirements of this subpart.

(f)  A covered swap entity may collect or post initial margin and variation margin that is required by § 349.3(d) or § 349.4(c) or that is not required pursuant to this subpart in any form of collateral.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.6]

[Section 349.6 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74902 and 79413, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]

§ 349.7  Segregation of collateral.

(a)  A covered swap entity that posts any collateral other than for variation margin with respect to a non-cleared swap or a non-cleared security-based swap shall require that all funds or other property other than variation margin provided by the covered swap entity be held by one or more custodians that are not the covered swap entity or counterparty and not affiliates of the covered swap entity or the counterparty.

(b)  A covered swap entity that collects initial margin required by § 349.3(a) with respect to a non-cleared swap or a non-cleared security-based swap shall require that such initial margin be held by one or more custodians that are not the covered swap entity or counterparty and not affiliates of the covered swap entity or the counterparty.

(c)  For purposes of paragraphs (a) and

(b)  of this section, the custodian must act pursuant to a custody agreement that:

(1)  Prohibits the custodian from rehypothecating, repledging, reusing, or otherwise transferring (through securities lending, securities borrowing, repurchase agreement, reverse repurchase agreement or other means) the collateral held by the custodian, except that cash collateral may be held in a general deposit account with the custodian if the funds in the account are used to purchase an asset described in § 349.6(a)(2) or (b), such asset is held in compliance with this § 349.7, and such purchase takes place within a time period reasonably necessary to consummate such purchase after the cash collateral is posted as initial margin; and

(2)  Is a legal, valid, binding, and enforceable agreement under the laws of all relevant jurisdictions, including in the event of bankruptcy, insolvency, or a similar proceeding.

(d)  Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, a custody agreement may permit the posting party to substitute or direct any reinvestment of posted collateral held by the custodian, provided that, with respect to collateral collected by a covered swap entity pursuant to § 349.3(a) or posted by a covered swap entity pursuant to § 349.3(b), the agreement requires the posting party to:

(1)  Substitute only funds or other property that would qualify as eligible collateral under § 349.6, and for which the amount net of applicable discounts described in appendix B of this subpart would be sufficient to meet the requirements of § 349.3; and

(2)  Direct reinvestment of funds only in assets that would qualify as eligible collateral under § 349.6, and for which the amount net of applicable discounts described in appendix B of this subpart would be sufficient to meet the requirements of § 349.3.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.7]

[Section 349.7 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74905, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]

§ 349.8  Initial margin models and standardized amounts.

(a)  Standardized amounts. Unless a covered swap entity's initial margin model conforms to the requirements of this section, the covered swap entity shall calculate the amount of initial margin required to be collected or posted for one or more non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps with a given counterparty pursuant to § 349.3 on a daily basis pursuant to appendix A of this subpart.

(b)  Use of initial margin models. A covered swap entity may calculate the amount of initial margin required to be collected or posted for one or more non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps with a given counterparty pursuant to § 349.3 on a daily basis using an initial margin model only if the initial margin model meets the requirements of this section.

(c)  Requirements for initial margin model. (1)  A covered swap entity must obtain the prior written approval of FDIC before using any initial margin model to calculate the initial margin required in this subpart.

(2)  A covered swap entity must demonstrate that the initial margin model satisfies all of the requirements of this section on an ongoing basis.

(3)  A covered swap entity must notify FDIC in writing 60 days prior to:

(i)  Extending the use of an initial margin model that FDIC has approved under this section to an additional product type;

(ii)  Making any change to any initial margin model approved by FDIC under this section that would result in a material change in the covered swap entity's assessment of initial margin requirements; or

(iii)  Making any material change to modeling assumptions used by the initial margin model.

(4)  [The Agency] may rescind its approval of the use of any initial margin model, in whole or in part, or may impose additional conditions or requirements if FDIC determines, in its sole discretion, that the initial margin model no longer complies with FDIC this section.

(d)  Quantitative requirements. (1)  The covered swap entity's initial margin model must calculate an amount of initial margin that is equal to the potential future exposure of the non-cleared swap, non-cleared security-based swap or netting portfolio of non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps covered by an eligible master netting agreement. Potential future exposure is an estimate of the one-tailed 99 percent confidence interval for an increase in the value of the non-cleared swap, non-cleared security-based swap or netting portfolio of non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps due to an instantaneous price shock that is equivalent to a movement in all material underlying risk factors, including prices, rates, and spreads, over a holding period equal to the shorter of ten business days or the maturity of the non-cleared swap, non-cleared security-based swap or netting portfolio.

(2)  All data used to calibrate the initial margin model must be based on an equally weighted historical observation period of at least one year and not more than five years and must incorporate a period of significant financial stress for each broad asset class that is appropriate to the non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps to which the initial margin model is applied.

(3)  The covered swap entity's initial margin model must use risk factors sufficient to measure all material price risks inherent in the transactions for which initial margin is being calculated. The risk categories must include, but should not be limited to, foreign exchange or interest rate risk, credit risk, equity risk, and commodity risk, as appropriate. For material exposures in significant currencies and markets, modeling techniques must capture spread and basis risk and must incorporate a sufficient number of segments of the yield curve to capture differences in volatility and imperfect correlation of rates along the yield curve.

(4)  In the case of a non-cleared cross-currency swap, the covered swap entity's initial margin model need not recognize any risks or risk factors associated with the fixed, physically-settled foreign exchange transaction associated with the exchange of principal embedded in the non-cleared cross-currency swap. The initial margin model must recognize all material risks and risk factors associated with all other payments and cash flows that occur during the life of the non-cleared cross-currency swap.

(5)  The initial margin model may calculate initial margin for a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap or a netting portfolio of non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps covered by an eligible master netting agreement. It may reflect offsetting exposures, diversification, and other hedging benefits for non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps that are governed by the same eligible master netting agreement by incorporating empirical correlations within the following broad risk categories, provided the covered swap entity validates and demonstrates the reasonableness of its process for modeling and measuring hedging benefits: Commodity, credit, equity, and foreign exchange or interest rate. Empirical correlations under an eligible master netting agreement may be recognized by the initial margin model within each broad risk category, but not across broad risk categories.

(6)  If the initial margin model does not explicitly reflect offsetting exposures, diversification, and hedging benefits between subsets of non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps within a broad risk category, the covered swap entity must calculate an amount of initial margin separately for each subset within which such relationships are explicitly recognized by the initial margin model. The sum of the initial margin amounts calculated for each subset of non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps within a broad risk category will be used to determine the aggregate initial margin due from the counterparty for the portfolio of non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps within the broad risk category.

(7)  The sum of the initial margin amounts calculated for each broad risk category will be used to determine the aggregate initial margin due from the counterparty.

(8)  The initial margin model may not permit the calculation of any initial margin collection amount to be offset by, or otherwise take into account, any initial margin that may be owed or otherwise payable by the covered swap entity to the counterparty.

(9)  The initial margin model must include all material risks arising from the nonlinear price characteristics of option positions or positions with embedded optionality and the sensitivity of the market value of the positions to changes in the volatility of the underlying rates, prices, or other material risk factors.

(10)  The covered swap entity may not omit any risk factor from the calculation of its initial margin that the covered swap entity uses in its initial margin model unless it has first demonstrated to the satisfaction of FDIC that such omission is appropriate.

(11)  The covered swap entity may not incorporate any proxy or approximation used to capture the risks of the covered swap entity's non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps unless it has first demonstrated to the satisfaction of [Agency] that such proxy or approximation is appropriate.

(12)  The covered swap entity must have a rigorous and well-defined process for re-estimating, re-evaluating, and updating its internal margin model to ensure continued applicability and relevance.

(13)  The covered swap entity must review and, as necessary, revise the data used to calibrate the initial margin model at least annually, and more frequently as market conditions warrant, to ensure that the data incorporate a period of significant financial stress appropriate to the non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps to which the initial margin model is applied.

(14)  The level of sophistication of the initial margin model must be commensurate with the complexity of the non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps to which it is applied. In calculating an initial margin collection amount, the initial margin model may make use of any of the generally accepted approaches for modeling the risk of a single instrument or portfolio of instruments.

(15)  [The Agency] may in its sole discretion require a covered swap entity using an initial margin model to collect a greater amount of initial margin than that determined by the covered swap entity's initial margin model if FDIC determines that the additional collateral is appropriate due to the nature, structure, or characteristics of the covered swap entity's transaction(s), or is commensurate with the risks associated with the transaction(s).

(e)  Periodic review. A covered swap entity must periodically, but no less frequently than annually, review its initial margin model in light of developments in financial markets and modeling technologies, and enhance the initial margin model as appropriate to ensure that the initial margin model continues to meet the requirements for approval in this section.

(f)  Control, oversight, and validation mechanisms. (1)  The covered swap entity must maintain a risk control unit that reports directly to senior management and is independent from the business trading units.

(2)  The covered swap entity's risk control unit must validate its initial margin model prior to implementation and on an ongoing basis. The covered swap entity's validation process must be independent of the development, implementation, and operation of the initial margin model, or the validation process must be subject to an independent review of its adequacy and effectiveness. The validation process must include:

(i)  An evaluation of the conceptual soundness of (including developmental evidence supporting) the initial margin model;

(ii)  An ongoing monitoring process that includes verification of processes and benchmarking by comparing the covered swap entity's initial margin model outputs (estimation of initial margin) with relevant alternative internal and external data sources or estimation techniques. The benchmark(s) must address the chosen model's limitations. When applicable, the covered swap entity should consider benchmarks that allow for non-normal distributions such as historical and Monte Carlo simulations. When applicable, validation shall include benchmarking against observable margin standards to ensure that the initial margin required is not less than what a derivatives clearing organization or a clearing agency would require for similar cleared transactions; and

(iii)  An outcomes analysis process that includes back-testing the initial margin model. This analysis must recognize and compensate for the challenges inherent in back-testing over periods that do not contain significant financial stress.

(3)  If the validation process reveals any material problems with the initial margin model, the covered swap entity must promptly notify FDIC of the problems, describe to FDIC any remedial actions being taken, and adjust the initial margin model to ensure an appropriately conservative amount of required initial margin is being calculated.

(4)  The covered swap entity must have an internal audit function independent of business-line management and the risk control unit that at least annually assesses the effectiveness of the controls supporting the covered swap entity's initial margin model measurement systems, including the activities of the business trading units and risk control unit, compliance with policies and procedures, and calculation of the covered swap entity's initial margin requirements under this subpart. At least annually, the internal audit function must report its findings to the covered swap entity's board of directors or a committee thereof.

(g)  Documentation. The covered swap entity must adequately document all material aspects of its initial margin model, including the management and valuation of the non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps to which it applies, the control, oversight, and validation of the initial margin model, any review processes and the results of such processes.

(h)  Escalation procedures. The covered swap entity must adequately document internal authorization procedures, including escalation procedures, that require review and approval of any change to the initial margin calculation under the initial margin model, demonstrable analysis that any basis for any such change is consistent with the requirements of this section, and independent review of such demonstrable analysis and approval.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.8]

[Section 349.8 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74905, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]

§ 349.9  Cross-border application of margin requirements.

(a)  Transactions to which this rule does not apply. The requirements of § § 349.3 through ll.8 and § § 349.10 through 349.12 shall not apply to any foreign non-cleared swap or foreign non-cleared security-based swap of a foreign covered swap entity.

(b)  For purposes of this section, a foreign non-cleared swap or foreign non-cleared security-based swap is any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap with respect to which neither the counterparty to the foreign covered swap entity nor any party that provides a guarantee of either party's obligations under the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap is:

(1)  An entity organized under the laws of the United States or any State (including a U.S. branch, agency, or subsidiary of a foreign bank) or a natural person who is a resident of the United States;

(2)  A branch or office of an entity organized under the laws of the United States or any State; or

(3)  A swap entity that is a subsidiary of an entity that is organized under the laws of the United States or any State.

(c)  For purposes of this section, a foreign covered swap entity is any covered swap entity that is not:

(1)  An entity organized under the laws of the United States or any State, including a U.S. branch, agency, or subsidiary of a foreign bank;

(2)  A branch or office of an entity organized under the laws of the United States or any State; or

(3)  An entity that is a subsidiary of an entity that is organized under the laws of the United States or any State.

(d)  Transactions for which substituted compliance determination may apply--

(1)  Determinations and reliance. For non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps entered into by covered swap entities described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section, a covered swap entity may satisfy the provisions of this subpart by complying with the foreign regulatory framework for non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps that the prudential regulators jointly, conditionally or unconditionally, determine by public order satisfy the corresponding requirements of § § ll.3 through ll.8 and § § 349.10 through 349.12.

(2)  Standard. In determining whether to make a determination under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the prudential regulators will consider whether the requirements of such foreign regulatory framework for non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps applicable to such covered swap entities are comparable to the otherwise applicable requirements of this subpart and appropriate for the safe and sound operation of the covered swap entity, taking into account the risks associated with non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps.

(3)  Covered swap entities eligible for substituted compliance. A covered swap entity may rely on a determination under paragraph (d)(1) of this section only if:

(i)  The covered swap entity's obligations under the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap do not have a guarantee from:

(A)  An entity organized under the laws of the United States or any State (other than a U.S. branch or agency of a foreign bank) or a natural person who is a resident of the United States; or

(B)  A branch or office of an entity organized under the laws of the United States or any State; and

(ii)  The covered swap entity is:

(A)  A foreign covered swap entity;

(B)  A U.S. branch or agency of a foreign bank; or

(C)  An entity that is not organized under the laws of the United States or any State and is a subsidiary of a depository institution, Edge corporation, or agreement corporation.

(4)  Compliance with foreign margin collection requirement. A covered swap entity satisfies its requirement to post initial margin under § 349.3(b) by posting to its counterparty initial margin in the form and amount, and at such times, that its counterparty is required to collect pursuant to a foreign regulatory framework, provided that the counterparty is subject to the foreign regulatory framework and the prudential regulators have made a determination under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, unless otherwise stated in that determination, and the counterparty's obligations under the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap do not have a guarantee from:

(i)  An entity organized under the laws of the United States or any State (including a U.S. branch, agency, or subsidiary of a foreign bank) or a natural person who is a resident of the United States; or

(ii)  A branch or office of an entity organized under the laws of the United States or any State.

(e)  Requests for determinations. (1)  A covered swap entity described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section may request that the prudential regulators make a determination pursuant to this section. A request for a determination must include a description of:

(i)  The scope and objectives of the foreign regulatory framework for non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps;

(ii)  The specific provisions of the foreign regulatory framework for non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps that govern:

(A)  The scope of transactions covered;

(B)  The determination of the amount of initial margin and variation margin required and how that amount is calculated;

(C)  The timing of margin requirements;

(D)  Any documentation requirements;

(E)  The forms of eligible collateral;

(F)  Any segregation and rehypothecation requirements; and

(G)  The approval process and standards for models used in calculating initial margin and variation margin;

(iii)  The supervisory compliance program and enforcement authority exercised by a foreign financial regulatory authority or authorities in such system to support its oversight of the application of the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap regulatory framework and how that framework applies to the non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps of the covered swap entity; and

(iv)  Any other descriptions and documentation that the prudential regulators determine are appropriate.

(2)  A covered swap entity described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section may make a request under this section only if the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap activities of the covered swap entity are directly supervised by the authorities administering the foreign regulatory framework for non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps.

(f)  Segregation unavailable. Sections 349.3(b) and 349.7 do not apply to a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap entered into by:

(1)  A foreign branch of a covered swap entity that is a depository institution; or

(2)  A covered swap entity that is not organized under the laws of the United States or any State and is a subsidiary of a depository institution, Edge corporation, or agreement corporation, if:

(i)  Inherent limitations in the legal or operational infrastructure in the foreign jurisdiction make it impracticable for the covered swap entity and the counterparty to post any form of eligible initial margin collateral recognized pursuant to § 349.6(b) in compliance with the segregation requirements of § 349.7;

(ii)  The covered swap entity is subject to foreign regulatory restrictions that require the covered swap entity to transact in the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap with the counterparty through an establishment within the foreign jurisdiction and do not accommodate the posting of collateral for the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap outside the jurisdiction;

(iii)  The counterparty to the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap is not, and the counterparty's obligations under the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap do not have a guarantee from:

(A)  An entity organized under the laws of the United States or any State (including a U.S. branch, agency, or subsidiary of a foreign bank) or a natural person who is a resident of the United States; or

(B)  A branch or office of an entity organized under the laws of the United States or any State;

(iv)  The covered swap entity collects initial margin for the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap in accordance with § 349.3(a) in the form of cash pursuant to § 349.6(b)(1), and posts and collects variation margin in accordance with § 349.4(a) in the form of cash pursuant to § 349.6(b)(1); and

(v)  [The Agency] provides the covered swap entity with prior written approval for the covered swap entity's reliance on this paragraph (f) for the foreign jurisdiction.

(g)  Guarantee means an arrangement pursuant to which one party to a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap has rights of recourse against a third-party guarantor, with respect to its counterparty's obligations under the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap. For these purposes, a party to a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap has rights of recourse against a guarantor if the party has a conditional or unconditional legally enforceable right to receive or otherwise collect, in whole or in part, payments from the guarantor with respect to its counterparty's obligations under the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap. In addition, any arrangement pursuant to which the guarantor has a conditional or unconditional legally enforceable right to receive or otherwise collect, in whole or in part, payments from any other third party guarantor with respect to the counterparty's obligations under the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap, such arrangement will be deemed a guarantee of the counterparty's obligations under the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap by the other guarantor.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.9]

[Section 349.9 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74907, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]

§ 349.10  Documentation of margin matters.

A covered swap entity shall execute trading documentation with each counterparty that is either a swap entity or financial end user regarding credit support arrangements that:

(a)  Provides the covered swap entity and its counterparty with the contractual right to collect and post initial margin and variation margin in such amounts, in such form, and under such circumstances as are required by this subpart; and

(b)  Specifies:

(1)  The methods, procedures, rules, and inputs for determining the value of each non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap for purposes of calculating variation margin requirements; and

(2)  The procedures by which any disputes concerning the valuation of non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps, or the valuation of assets collected or posted as initial margin or variation margin, may be resolved; and

(c)  Describes the methods, procedures, rules, and inputs used to calculate initial margin for non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security based swaps entered into between the covered swap entity and the counterparty.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.10]

[Section 349.10 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74908, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]

§ 349.11  Special rules for affiliates.

(a)  Affiliates. This subpart applies to a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap of a covered swap entity with its affiliate, unless the swap or security-based swap is excluded from coverage under § 349.1(d) or as otherwise provided in this section. To the extent of any inconsistency between this section and any other provision of this subpart, this section will apply.

(b)  Initial margin--(1)  Posting of initial margin. The requirement for a covered swap entity to post initial margin under § 349.3(b) does not apply with respect to any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap with a counterparty that is an affiliate. A covered swap entity shall calculate the amount of initial margin that would be required to be posted to an affiliate that is a financial end user with material swaps exposure pursuant to § 349.3(b) and provide documentation of such amount to each affiliate on a daily basis.

(2)  Initial margin threshold amount. For purposes of calculating the amount of initial margin to be collected from an affiliate counterparty in accordance with § 349.3(a) or calculating the amount of initial margin that would have been posted to an affiliate counterparty in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the initial margin threshold amount is an aggregate credit exposure of $20 million resulting from all non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps between the covered swap entity and that affiliate. For purposes of this calculation, an entity shall not count a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap that is exempt pursuant to § 349.1(d).

(c)  Variation margin. A covered swap entity shall collect and post variation margin with respect to a non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap with any counterparty that is an affiliate as provided in § 349.4.

(d)  Custodian for non-cash collateral. To the extent that a covered swap entity collects initial margin required by § 349.3(a) from an affiliate with respect to any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap in the form of collateral other than cash collateral, the custodian for such collateral may be the covered swap entity or an affiliate of the covered swap entity.

(e)  Model holding period and netting--(1)  Model holding period. For any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap (or netting portfolio) between a covered swap entity and an affiliate that would be subject to the clearing requirements of section 2(h)(1)(A) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 or section 3C(a)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 but for an exemption under section 2(h)(7)(C)(iii) or (D) or section 4(c)(1) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 or regulations of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission or section 3C(g)(4) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, the covered swap entity's initial margin model calculation as described in § 349 .8(d)(1) may use a holding period equal to the shorter of five business days or the maturity of the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap (or netting portfolio).

(2)  Netting arrangements. Any netting portfolio that contains any non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap with a model holding period equal to the shorter of five business days or the maturity of the non-cleared swap or non-cleared security-based swap pursuant to paragraph (e)(1) of this section must be identified and separate from any other netting portfolio for purposes of calculating and complying with the initial margin requirements of this subpart.

(f)  Standardized amounts. If a covered swap entity's initial margin model does not conform to the requirements of § 349.8, the covered swap entity shall calculate the amount of initial margin required to be collected for one or more non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps with a given affiliate counterparty pursuant to section § 349.3 on a daily basis pursuant to Appendix A with the gross initial margin multiplied by 0.7.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.11]

[Section 349.11 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74909, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]

§ 349.12  Capital.

A covered swap entity shall comply with the capital requirements that are applicable to the covered swap entity under part 324 of this chapter.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.12]

[Section 349.12 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74913, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]


Appendix A to Part 349—Standardized Minimum Initial Margin Requirements for Non-cleared Swaps and Non—cleared Security-based Swaps

TABLE A—STANDARDIZED MINIMUM GROSS INITIAL MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-CLEARED SWAPS AND NONCLEARED SECURITY-BASED SWAPS1

Asset Class Gross initial margin (% of notional exposure)
Credit: 0--2 year duration 2
Credit: 2--5 year duration 5
Credit: 5+ year duration 10
Commodity 15
Equity 15
Foreign Exchange/Currency 6
Cross Currency Swaps: 0--2 year duration 1
Cross-Currency Swaps: 2--5 years duration 2
Cross-Currency Swaps: 5+ year duration 4
Interest Rate: 0--2 year duration 1
Interest Rate: 2--5 year duration 2
Interest Rate: 5+ year duration 4
Other 15

1The initial margin amount applicable to multiple non-cleared swaps or non-cleared security-based swaps subject to an eligible master netting agreement that is calculated according to Appendix A will be computed as follows:

Initial Margin=0.4xGross Initial Margin +0.6x NGRxGross Initial Margin where;

Gross Initial Margin = the sum of the product of each non-cleared swap's or non-cleared security-based swap's effective notional amount and the gross initial margin requirement for all non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps subject to the eligible master netting agreement; and

NGR = the net-to-gross ratio (that is, the ratio of the net current replacement cost to the gross current replacement cost). In calculating NGR, the gross current replacement cost equals the sum of the replacement cost for each non-cleared swap and non-cleared security-based swap subject to the eligible master netting agreement for which the cost is positive. The net current replacement cost equals the total replacement cost for all non-cleared swaps and non-cleared security-based swaps subject to the eligible master netting agreement. In cases where the gross replacement cost is zero, the NGR should be set to 1.0.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. 349, Appendix A]

[Appendix A to Part 349 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74910, November 30, 2015, effective April 1, 2016]


Appendix B to Part 349—Margin Values for Eligible Noncash Margin Collateral.

TABLE B—MARGIN VALUES FOR ELIGIBLE NONCASH MARGIN COLLATERAL

Asset class Discount (%)
Eligible government and related (e.g., central bank, multilateral development bank, GSE securities identified in § 349.6(a)(2)(iv) or (b)(5) debt: residual maturity less than one-year 0.5
Eligible government and related (e.g., central bank, multilateral development bank, GSE securities identified in § 349.6(a)(2)(iv) or (b)(5) debt: residual maturity between one and five years 2.0
Eligible government and related (e.g., central bank, multilateral development bank, GSE securities identified in § 349.6(a)(2)(iv) or (b)(5) debt: residual maturity greater than five years 4.0
Eligible GSE debt securities not identified in § 349.6(a)(2)(iv) or (b)(5): residual maturity less than one-year 1.0
Eligible GSE debt securities not identified in § 349.6(a)(2)(iv) or (b)(5): residual maturity between one and five years: 4.0
Eligible GSE debt securities not identified in § 349.6(a)(2)(iv) or (b)(5): residual maturity greater than five years: 8.0
Other eligible publicly traded debt: residual maturity less than one-year 1.0
Other eligible publicly traded debt: residual maturity between one and five years 4.0
Other eligible publicly traded debt: residual maturity greater than five years 8.0
Equities included in S&P 500 or related index 15.0
Equities included in S&P 1500 Composite or related index but not S&P 500 or related index 25.0
Gold 15.0

1The discount to be applied to an eligible investment fund is the weighted average discount on all assets within the eligible investment fund at the end of the prior month. The weights to be applied in the weighted average should be calculated as a fraction of the fund's total market value that is invested in each asset with a given discount amount. As an example, an eligible investment fund that is comprised solely of $100 of 91 day Treasury bills and $100 of 3 year US Treasury bonds would receive a discount of (100/200)*0.5+(100/200)*2.0=(0.5)+(0.5)*2.0=1.25 percent.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. Part 349, Appendix B]

[Appendix B to Part 349 added at 80 Fed. Reg. 74910, November 30, 2015]

Subpart B—Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

§ 349.13  Authority, purpose and scope.

(a)  Authority. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution that engages in retail forex transactions shall comply with the requirements of this part.

(b)  Purpose. This part establishes rules applicable to retail forex transactions engaged in by FDIC-supervised insured depository institutions and applies on or after the effective date.

(c)  Scope. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, this part applies to FDIC-supervised insured depository institutions.

(d)  International applicability. Sections 349.15 and 349.17 through 349.28 do not apply to retail foreign exchange transactions between a foreign branch of an FDIC-supervised IDI and a non-U.S. customer. With respect to those transactions, an FDIC-supervised IDI must comply with any disclosure, recordkeeping, capital, margin, reporting, business conduct, documentation, and other requirements of applicable foreign law.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.13]

[Section 349.1 redesignated as 349.13 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2015]

§ 349.14  Definitions.

For purposes of this part--

The following terms have the same meaning as in the Commodity Exchange Act: "Affiliated person of a futures commission merchant''; "Associated person''; "Contract of sale''; "Commodity''; "Eligible contract participant''; "Futures commission merchant''; "Security''; and "Security futures product''.

Affiliate has the same meaning as in § 2(k) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1841(k)).

Commodity Exchange Act means the Commodity Exchange Act (7 U.S.C. 1 et seq.).

FDIC-supervised insured depository institution means any insured depository institution for which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation is the appropriate Federal banking agency pursuant to § 3(q) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, 12 U.S.C. 1813(q).

Forex means foreign exchange.

Institution-affiliated party or IAP has the same meaning as in 12 U.S.C. 1813(u)(1), (2), or (3).

Insured depository institution or IDI has the same meaning as in 12 U.S.C. 1813(c)(2).

Introducing broker means any person who solicits or accepts orders from a retail forex customer in connection with retail forex transactions.

Retail forex account means the account of a retail forex customer, established with an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution, in which retail forex transactions with the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution as counterparty are undertaken, or the account of a retail forex customer that is established in order to enter into such transactions.

Retail forex account agreement means the contractual agreement between an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution and a retail forex customer that contains the terms governing the customer's retail forex account with the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution.

Retail forex business means engaging in one or more retail forex transactions with the intent to derive income from those transactions, either directly or indirectly.

Retail forex customer means a customer that is not an eligible contract participant, acting on his, her, or its own behalf and engaging in retail forex transactions.

Retail forex proprietary account means: a retail forex account carried on the books of an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution for one of the following persons; a retail forex account of which 10 percent or more is owned by one of the following persons; or a retail forex account of which an aggregate of 10 percent or more of which is owned by more than one of the following persons:

(1)  The FDIC-supervised insured depository institution;

(2)  An officer, director or owner of ten percent or more of the capital stock of the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution; or

(3)  An employee of the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution, whose duties include:

(i)  The management of the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution's business;

(ii)  The handling of the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution's retail forex transactions;

(iii)  The keeping of records, including without limitation the software used to make or maintain those records, pertaining to the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution's retail forex transactions; or

(iv)  The signing or co-signing of checks or drafts on behalf of the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution;

(4)  A spouse or minor dependent living in the same household as of any of the foregoing persons; or

(5)  An affiliate of the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution;

Retail forex counterparty includes, as appropriate:

(1)  An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution;

(2)  A retail foreign exchange dealer;

(3)  A futures commission merchant; and

(4)  An affiliated person of a futures commission merchant.

Related person, when used in reference to a retail forex counterparty, means:

(1)  Any general partner, officer, director, or owner of ten percent or more of the capital stock of the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution;

(2)  An associated person or employee of the retail forex counterparty, if the retail forex counterparty is not an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution;

(3)  An IAP, if the retail forex counterparty is an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution; and

(4)  Any relative or spouse of any of the foregoing persons, or any relative of such spouse, who shares the same home as any of the foregoing persons.

Retail forex transaction means an agreement, contract, or transaction in foreign currency, other than an identified banking product or a part of an identified banking product, that is offered or entered into by FDIC-supervised insured depository institution with a person that is not an eligible contract participant and that is:

(1)  A contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery or an option on such a contract;

(2)  An option, other than an option executed or traded on a national securities exchange registered pursuant to § 6(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78(f)(a)); or

(3)  Offered or entered into on a leveraged or margined basis, or financed by an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution, its affiliate, or any person acting in concert with the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution or its affiliate on a similar basis, other than:

(i)  A security that is not a security futures product as defined in § 1a(47) of the Commodity Exchange Act (7 U.S.C. 1a(47)); or

(ii)  A contract of sale that--

(A)  Results in actual delivery within two days; or

(B)  Creates an enforceable obligation to deliver between a seller and buyer that have the ability to deliver and accept delivery, respectively, in connection with their line of business; or

(iii)  An agreement, contract, or transaction that the FDIC determines is not functionally or economically similar to:

(A)  A contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery or an option on such a contract; or

(B)  An option, other than an option executed or traded on a national securities exchange registered pursuant to Section 6(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78(f)(a)).

Retail forex obligations means obligations of a retail forex customer with respect to retail forex transactions, including, but not limited to, trading losses, fees, and commissions.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.14]

[Section 349.2 redesignated as 349.14 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.15  Prohibited transactions.

(a)  Fraudulent conduct prohibited. No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution or its IAPs may, directly or indirectly, in or in connection with any retail forex transaction:

(1)  Cheat or defraud or attempt to cheat or defraud any person;

(2)  Willfully make or cause to be made to any person any false report or statement or cause to be entered for any person any false record; or

(3)  Willfully deceive or attempt to deceive any person by any means whatsoever.

(b)  Acting as counterparty and exercising discretion prohibited. If an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution can cause retail forex transactions to be effected for a retail forex customer without the retail forex customer's specific authorization, then neither the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution nor its affiliates may act as the counterparty for any retail forex transaction with that retail forex customer.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.15]

[Section 349.3 redesignated as 349.15 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.16  Filing procedures.

(a)  General. Before commencing a retail forex business, an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution shall provide the FDIC prior written notice and obtain the FDIC's prior written consent.

(b)  Where to file. A notice required by this section shall be submitted in writing to the appropriate FDIC office.

(c)  Contents of filing. A complete letter notice shall include the following information:

(1)  Filings generally. (i) A brief description of the FDIC-supervised institution's proposed retail forex business and the manner in which it will be conducted;

(ii)  The amount of the institution's existing or proposed direct or indirect investment in the retail forex business as well as calculations sufficient to indicate compliance with all capital requirements in § 349.20 and all other applicable capital standards;

(iii)  A copy of the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution's comprehensive business plan that includes a discussion of, among other things, how the operation of the retail forex business is consistent with the institution's overall strategy;

(iv)  A description of the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution's target customers for its proposed retail forex business and related information, including without limitation credit evaluations, customer appropriateness, and "know your customer'' documentation;

(v)  A resolution by the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution's board of directors that the proposed retail forex business is an appropriate activity for the institution and that the institution's written policies, procedures, and risk measurement and management systems and controls address conducting retail forex business in a safe and sound manner and in compliance with this part;

(vi)  Sample risk disclosures sufficient to demonstrate compliance with § 349.18.

(2)  Copy of application or notice filed with another agency. If an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has filed an application or notice with another regulatory authority which contains all of the information required by subparagraph (c)(1) of this part, the institution may submit a copy to the FDIC in lieu of a separate filing.

(3)  Additional information. The FDIC may request additional information to complete the processing of the notification.

(d)  Treatment of Existing Retail Forex Business. Any FDIC-supervised insured depository institution that is engaged in retail forex business on July 15, 2011 may continue to do so for up to six months, subject to an extension of time by the FDIC, provided that it notifies the FDIC of its retail forex business and requests the FDIC's written consent in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section.

(e)  Compliance with the Commodities Exchange Act. Any FDIC-supervised insured depository institution that is engaged in retail forex business on July 15, 2011 shall be deemed, during the six-month period (including any extension) provided in paragraph (e) of this section, to be acting pursuant to a rule or regulation described in § 2(c)(2)(E)(ii)(I) of the Commodity Exchange Act (7 U.S.C. 2(c)(2)(E)(ii)(I)).

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.16]

[Section 349.4 redesignated as 349.16 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.17  Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.

(a)  Application of purchases and sales. Any FDIC-supervised insured depository institution that--

(1)  Engages in a retail forex transaction involving the purchase of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of such purchase has an open retail forex transaction for the sale of the same currency;

(2)  Engages in a retail forex transaction involving the sale of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of such sale has an open retail forex transaction for the purchase of the same currency;

(3)  Purchases a put or call option involving foreign currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of such purchase has a short put or call option position with the same underlying currency, strike price, and expiration date as that purchased; or

(4)  Sells a put or call option involving foreign currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of such sale has a long put or call option position with the same underlying currency, strike price, and expiration date as that sold shall:

(i)  Immediately apply such purchase or sale against such previously held opposite transaction; and

(ii)  Promptly furnish such retail forex customer with a statement showing the financial result of the transactions involved and the name of any introducing broker to the account.

(b)  Close-out against oldest open position. In all instances where the short or long position in a customer's retail forex account immediately prior to an offsetting purchase or sale is greater than the quantity purchased or sold, the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution shall apply such offsetting purchase or sale to the oldest portion of the previously held short or long position.

(c)  Transactions to be applied as directed by customer. Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, the offsetting transaction shall be applied as directed by a retail forex customer's specific instructions. These instructions may not be made by the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution or an IAP.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.17]

[Section 349.5 redesignated as 349.17 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.18  Disclosure.

(a)  Risk disclosure statement required. No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may open or maintain open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail forex customer unless the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has furnished the retail forex customer with a separate written disclosure statement containing only the language set forth in paragraph (d) of this section and the disclosures required by paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section.

(b)  Acknowledgement of risk disclosure statement required. The FDIC-supervised insured depository institution must receive from the retail forex customer a written acknowledgement signed and dated by the customer that the customer received and understood the written disclosure statement required by paragraph (a) of this section.

(c)  Placement of risk disclosure statement. The disclosure statement may be attached to other documents as the initial page(s) of such documents and as the only material on such page(s).

(d)  Content of risk disclosure statement. The language set forth in the written disclosure statement required by paragraph (a) of this section shall be as follows:

Risk Disclosure Statement

Retail forex transactions involve the leveraged trading of contracts denominated in foreign currency with an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution as your counterparty. Because of the leverage and the other risks disclosed here, you can rapidly lose all of the funds or property you give the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution as margin for such trading and you may lose more than you pledge as margin.

Your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution is prohibited from applying losses that you experience on retail forex transactions on any funds or property of yours other than funds or property that you have given or pledged as margin for retail forex transactions. You should be aware of and carefully consider the following points before determining whether such trading is appropriate for you.

(1)  Trading is a not on a regulated market or exchange--your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution is your trading counterparty and has conflicting interests. The retail forex transaction you are entering into is not conducted on an interbank market, nor is it conducted on a futures exchange subject to regulation as a designated contract market by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. The foreign currency trades you transact are trades with your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution as the counterparty. When you sell, the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution is the buyer. When you buy, the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution is the seller. As a result, when you lose money trading, your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution is making money on such trades, in addition to any fees, commissions, or spreads the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may charge.

(2)  An electronic trading platform for retail foreign currency transactions is not an exchange. It is an electronic connection for accessing your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution. The terms of availability of such a platform are governed only by your contract with your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution. Any trading platform that you may use to enter into off-exchange foreign currency transactions is only connected to your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution. You are accessing that trading platform only to transact with your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution. You are not trading with any other entities or customers of the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution by accessing such platform. The availability and operation of any such platform, including the consequences of the unavailability of the trading platform for any reason, is governed only by the terms of your account agreement with the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution.

(3)  You may be able to offset or liquidate any trading positions only through your banking entity because the transactions are not made on an exchange or regulated contract market, and your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may set its own prices. Your ability to close your transactions or offset positions is limited to what your FDIC- supervised insured depository institution will offer to you, as there is no other market for these transactions. Your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may offer any prices it wishes, including prices derived from outside sources or not in its discretion. Your FDIC- supervised insured depository institution may establish its prices by offering spreads from third party prices, but it is under no obligation to do so or to continue to do so. Your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may offer different prices to different customers at any point in time on its own terms. The terms of your account agreement alone govern the obligations your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has to you to offer prices and offer offset or liquidating transactions in your account and make any payments to you. The prices offered by your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may or may not reflect prices available elsewhere at any exchange, interbank, or other market for foreign currency.

(4)  Paid solicitors may have undisclosed conflicts. The FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may compensate introducing brokers for introducing your account in ways that are not disclosed to you. Such paid solicitors are not required to have, and may not have, any special expertise in trading, and may have conflicts of interest based on the method by which they are compensated. You should thoroughly investigate the manner in which all such solicitors are compensated and be very cautious in granting any person or entity authority to trade on your behalf. You should always consider obtaining dated written confirmation of any information you are relying on from your FDIC-supervised insured depository institution in making any trading or account decisions.

(5)  Retail forex transactions are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

(6)  Retail forex transactions are not a deposit in, or guaranteed by, an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution.

(7)  Retail forex transactions are subject to investment risks, including possible loss of all amounts invested.

Finally, you should thoroughly investigate any statements by any FDIC-supervised insured depository institution that minimize the importance of, or contradict, any of the terms of this risk disclosure. These statements may indicate sales fraud.

This brief statement cannot, of course, disclose all the risks and other aspects of trading off-exchange foreign currency with an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution.

I hereby acknowledge that I have received and understood this risk disclosure statement.

_______

Date

_______

Signature of Customer

(e)(1)  Disclosure of profitable accounts ratio. Immediately following the language set forth in paragraph (d) of this section, the statement required by paragraph (a) of this section shall include, for each of the most recent four calendar quarters during which the FDIC- supervised insured depository institution maintained retail forex customer accounts:

(i)  The total number of retail forex customer accounts maintained by the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution over which the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution does not exercise investment discretion;

(ii)  The percentage of such accounts that were profitable for retail forex customer accounts during the quarter; and

(iii)  The percentage of such accounts that were not profitable for retail forex customer accounts during the quarter.

(2)  The FDIC-supervised insured depository institution's statement of profitable trades shall include the following legend: "Past performance is not necessarily indicative of future results.'' Each FDIC-supervised insured depository institution shall provide, upon request, to any retail forex customer or prospective retail forex customer the total number of retail forex accounts maintained by the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution for which the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution does not exercise investment discretion, the percentage of such accounts that were profitable, and the percentage of such accounts that were not profitable for each calendar quarter during the most recent five-year period during which the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution maintained such accounts.

(f)  Disclosure of fees and other charges. Immediately following the language required by paragraph (e) of this section, the statement required by paragraph (a) of this section shall include:

(1)  The amount of any fee, charge, commission, or spreads that the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may impose on the retail forex customer in connection with a retail forex account or retail forex transaction;

(2)  An explanation of how the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution will determine the amount of such fees, charges, commissions, or spreads; and

(3)  The circumstances under which the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may impose such fees, charges, commissions, or spreads.

(g)  Future disclosure requirements. If, with regard to a retail forex customer, the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution changes any fee, charge, commission or spreads required to be disclosed under paragraph (f) of this section, then the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution shall mail or deliver to the retail forex customer a notice of the changes at least 15 days prior to the effective date of the change.

(h)  Form of disclosure requirements. The disclosures required by this section shall be clear and conspicuous and designed to call attention to the nature and significance of the information provided.

(i)  Other disclosure requirements unaffected. This section does not relieve an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution from any other disclosure obligation it may have under applicable law.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.18]

[Section 349.6 redesignated as 349.18 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.19  Recordkeeping.

(a)  General rule. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution engaging in retail forex transactions shall keep full, complete and systematic records, together with all pertinent data and memoranda, pertaining to its retail forex business, including:

(1)  Retail forex account records. For each retail forex account:

(i)  The name and address of the person for whom the account is carried or introduced and the principal occupation or business of the person.

(ii)  The name of any other person guaranteeing the account or exercising trading control with respect to the account;

(iii)  The establishment or termination of the account; and

(iv)  A means to identify the person who has solicited and is responsible for the account or assign account numbers in such a manner as to identify that person.

(v)  The funds in the account, net of any commissions and fees;

(vi)  The account's net profits and losses on open trades;

(vii)  The funds in the account plus or minus the net profits and losses on open trades, adjusted for the net option value in the case of open options positions;

(viii)  Financial ledger records that show separately for each retail forex customer all charges against and credits to such retail forex customer's account, including deposits, withdrawals, and transfers, and charges or credits resulting from losses or gains on closed transactions; and

(ix)  A list of all retail forex transactions executed for the account, with the details specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section;

(2)  Retail forex transaction records. For each retail forex transaction:

(i)  The price at which the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution placed the order, or, in the case of an option, the premium that the retail forex customer paid;

(ii)  The customer account identification information;

(iii)  The currency pair;

(iv)  The size or quantity of the order;

(v)  Whether the order was a buy or sell order;

(vi)  The type of order, if the order was not a market order;

(vii)  The size and price at which the order is executed, or in the case of an option, the amount of the premium paid for each option purchased, or the amount credited for each option sold;

(viii)  For options, whether the option is a put or call, expiration date, quantity, underlying contract for future delivery or underlying physical, strike price, and details of the purchase price of the option, including premium, mark-up, commission, and fees; and

(ix)  For futures, the delivery date; and

(x)  If the order was made on a trading platform:

(A)  The price quoted on the trading platform when the order was placed, or, in the case of an option, the premium quoted;

(B)  The date and time the order was transmitted to the trading platform; and

(C)  The date and time the order was executed;

(3)  Price changes on a trading platform. If a trading platform is used, daily logs showing each price change on the platform, the time of the change to the nearest second, and the trading volume at that time and price;

(4)  Methods or algorithms. Any method or algorithm used to determine the bid or asked price for any retail forex transaction or the prices at which customer orders are executed, including, but not limited to, any markups, fees, commissions or other items which affect the profitability or risk of loss of a retail forex customer's transaction;

(5)  Daily records which show for each business day complete details of:

(i)  All retail forex transactions that are futures transactions executed on that day, including the date, price, quantity, market, currency pair, delivery date, and the person for whom such transaction was made;

(ii)  All retail forex transactions that are option transactions executed on that day, including the date, whether the transaction involved a put or call, the expiration date, quantity, currency pair, delivery date, strike price, details of the purchase price of the option, including premium, mark-up, commission and fees, and the person for whom the transaction was made;

(iii)  All other retail forex transactions executed on that day for such account, including the date, price, quantity, currency and the person for whom such transaction was made; and

(6)  Other records. Written acknowledgements of receipt of the risk disclosure statement required by section 349.18(b), records required under paragraph (b) through (f) of this section, trading cards, signature cards, street books, journals, ledgers, payment records, copies of statements of purchase, and all other records, data and memoranda that have been prepared in the course of the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution's retail forex business.

(b)  Ratio of profitable accounts. (1) With respect to its active retail forex customer accounts over which it did not exercise investment discretion and that are not retail forex proprietary accounts open for any period of time during the quarter, an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution shall prepare and maintain on a quarterly basis (calendar quarter):

(i)  A calculation of the percentage of such accounts that were profitable;

(ii)  A calculation of the percentage of such accounts that were not profitable; and

(iii)  Data supporting the calculations described in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (b)(1)(ii) of this section.

(2)  In calculating whether a retail forex account was profitable or not profitable during the quarter, the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution shall compute the realized and unrealized gains or losses on all retail forex transactions carried in the retail forex account at any time during the quarter, and subtract all fees, commissions, and any other charges posted to the retail forex account during the quarter, and add any interest income and other income or rebates credited to the retail forex account during the quarter. All deposits and withdrawals of funds made by the retail forex customer during the quarter must be excluded from the computation of whether the retail forex account was profitable or not profitable during the quarter. Computations that result in a zero or negative number shall be considered a retail forex account that was not profitable. Computations that result in a positive number shall be considered a retail forex account that was profitable.

(3)  A retail forex account shall be considered "active'' for purposes of paragraph (b)(1) of this section if and only if, for the relevant calendar quarter, a retail forex transaction was executed in that account or the retail forex account contained an open position resulting from a retail forex transaction.

(c)  Records related to possible violations of law. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution engaging in retail forex transactions shall make a record of all communications, including customer complaints, received by the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution or its IAPs concerning facts giving rise to possible violations of law related to the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution's retail forex business. The record shall contain: the name of the complainant, if provided; the date of the communication; the relevant agreement, contract, or transaction; the substance of the communication; the name of the person who received the communication, and the final disposition of the matter.

(d)  Records for noncash margin. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution shall maintain a record of all noncash margin collected pursuant to section 349.21. The record shall show separately for each retail forex customer:

(1)  A description of the securities or property received;

(2)  The name and address of such retail forex customer;

(3)  The dates when the securities or property were received;

(4)  The identity of the depositories or other places where such securities or property are segregated or held, if applicable;

(5)  The dates in which the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution placed or removed such securities or property into or from such depositories; and

(6)  The dates of return of such securities or property to such retail forex customer, or other disposition thereof, together with the facts and circumstances of such other disposition.

(e)  Order Tickets. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, immediately upon the receipt of a retail forex transaction order, an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution must prepare an order ticket for the order (whether unfulfilled, executed, or canceled). The order ticket must include:

(i)  Account identification (account or customer name with which the retail forex transaction was effected);

(ii)  Order number;

(iii)  Type of order (market order, limit order, or subject to special instructions);

(iv)  Date and time, to the nearest minute, the retail forex transaction order was received (as evidenced by timestamp or other timing device);

(v)  Time, to the nearest minute, the retail forex transaction order was executed; and

(vi)  Price at which the retail forex transaction was executed.

(2)  Post-execution allocation of bunched orders. Specific identifiers for retail forex accounts included in bunched orders need not be recorded at time of order placement or upon report of execution as required under paragraph (e)(1) of this section if the following requirements are met:

(i)  The FDIC-supervised insured depository institution placing and directing the allocation of an order eligible for post-execution allocation has been granted written investment discretion with regard to participating customer accounts and makes the following information available to retail forex customers upon request:

(A)  The general nature of the post-execution allocation methodology the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution will use;

(B)  Whether the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has any interest in accounts which may be included with customer accounts in bunched orders eligible for post-execution allocation; and

(C)  Summary or composite data sufficient for that customer to compare its results with those of other comparable customers and, if applicable, any account in which the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has an interest.

(ii)  Post-execution allocations are made as soon as practicable after the entire transaction is executed;

(iii)  Post-execution allocations are fair and equitable, with no account or group of accounts receiving consistently favorable or unfavorable treatment; and

(iv)  The post-execution allocation methodology is sufficiently objective and specific to permit the FDIC to verify the fairness of the allocations using that methodology.

(f)  Record of monthly statements and confirmations. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution shall retain a copy of each monthly statement and confirmation required by section 349.22.

(g)  Manner of maintenance. The records required by this section must clearly and accurately reflect the information required and provide an adequate basis for the audit of the information. Record maintenance may include the use of automated or electronic records provided that the records are easily retrievable, readily available for inspection, and capable of being reproduced in hard copy.

(h)  Length of maintenance. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution shall keep each record required by this section for at least five years from the date the record is created.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.19]

[Section 349.7 redesignated as 349.19 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.20  Capital requirements.

An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution offering or entering into retail forex transactions must be well capitalized as defined by 12 CFR part 325 or 12 CFR part 324, as applicable, unless specifically exempted by the FDIC in writing.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.8]

[Section 349.8 amended at 78 Fed. Reg. 55595, September 10, 2013, effective January 1, 2014. Mandatory compliance date January 1, 2014. Mandatory compliance date January 1, 2014 for advanced approaches FDIC-supervised institutions, January 1, 2015 for all other FDIC-supervised institutions; Section 349.8 redesignated at 349.20 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.21  Margin requirements.

(a)  Margin required. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than:

(1)  Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency pairs;

(2)  For short options, 2 percent for major currency pairs and 5 percent for all other currency pairs of the notional value of the retail forex transaction, plus the premium received by the retail forex customer; or

(3)  For long options, the full premium charged and received by the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution.

(b)(1)  Form of margin. Margin collected under paragraph (a) of this section or pledged by a retail forex customer for retail forex transactions in excess of the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section must be in the form of cash or the following financial instruments:

(i)  Obligations of the United States and obligations fully guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States;

(ii)  General obligations of any State or of any political subdivision thereof;

(iii)  General obligations issued or guaranteed by any enterprise, as defined in 12 U.S.C. 4502(10);

(iv)  Certificates of deposit issued by an insured depository institution, as defined in § 3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(c)(2));

(v)  Commercial paper;

(vi)  Corporate notes or bonds;

(vii)  General obligations of a sovereign nation;

(viii)  Interests in money market mutual funds; and

(ix)  Such other financial instruments as the FDIC deems appropriate.

(2)  Haircuts. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution shall establish written policies and procedures that include:

(i)  Haircuts for noncash margin collected under this section; and

(ii)  Annual evaluation, and, if appropriate, modification of the haircuts.

(c)  Separate margin account. Margin collected by the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution from a retail forex customer for retail forex transactions or pledged by a retail forex customer for retail forex transactions shall be placed into a separate account containing only such margin.

(d)  Margin calls; liquidation of position. For each retail forex customer, at least once per day, an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution shall:

(1)  Mark the value of the retail forex customer's open retail forex positions to market;

(2)  Mark the value of the margin collected under this section from the retail forex customer to market;

(3)  Determine if, based on the marks in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section, the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has collected margin from the retail forex customer sufficient to satisfy the requirements of this section; and

(4)  Collect such margin from the retail forex customer as the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may require to satisfy the requirements of this section, or liquidate the retail forex customer's retail forex transactions.

(e)  Set-off prohibited. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may not:

(1)  Apply a retail forex customer's retail forex obligations against any funds or other asset of the retail forex customer other than margin in the separate margin account described in paragraph (c) of this section;

(2)  Apply a retail forex customer's retail forex obligations to increase the amount owed by the retail forex customer to the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution under any loan; or

(3)  Collect the margin required under this section by use of any right of set-off.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.21]

[Section 349.9 redesignated as 349.21 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.22  Required reporting to customers.

(a)  Monthly statements. Each FDIC-supervised insured depository institution must promptly furnish to each retail forex customer, as of the close of the last business day of each month or as of any regular monthly date selected, except for accounts in which there are neither open positions at the end of the statement period nor any changes to the account balance since the prior statement period, but in any event not less frequently than once every three months, a statement that clearly shows:

(1)  For each retail forex customer:

(i)  The open retail forex transactions with prices at which acquired;

(ii)  The net unrealized profits or losses in all open retail forex transactions marked to the market;

(iii)  Any money, securities or other property in the separate margin account required by § 349.21(c); and

(iv)  A detailed accounting of all financial charges and credits to the retail forex customer's retail forex accounts during the monthly reporting period, including: money, securities, or property received from or disbursed to such customer; realized profits and losses; and fees, charges, commissions, and spreads.

(2)  For each retail forex customer engaging in retail forex transactions that are options:

(i)  All such options purchased, sold, exercised, or expired during the monthly reporting period, identified by underlying retail forex transaction or underlying currency, strike price, transaction date, and expiration date;

(ii)  The open option positions carried for such customer and arising as of the end of the monthly reporting period, identified by underlying retail forex transaction or underlying currency, strike price, transaction date, and expiration date;

(iii)  All such option positions marked to the market and the amount each position is in the money, if any;

(iv)  Any money, securities or other property in the separate margin account required by § 349.21(c); and

(v)  A detailed accounting of all financial charges and credits to the retail forex customer's retail forex accounts during the monthly reporting period, including: money, securities, or property received from or disbursed to such customer; realized profits and losses; premiums and mark-ups; and fees, charges, and commissions.

(b)  Confirmation statement. Each FDIC-supervised insured depository institution must, not later than the next business day after any retail forex transaction, send:

(1)  To each retail forex customer, a written confirmation of each retail forex transaction caused to be executed by it for the customer, including offsetting transactions executed during the same business day and the rollover of an open retail forex transaction to the next business day;

(2)  To each retail forex customer engaging in forex option transactions, a written confirmation of each forex option transaction, containing at least the following information:

(i)  The retail forex customer's account identification number;

(ii)  A separate listing of the actual amount of the premium, as well as each mark-up thereon, if applicable, and all other commissions, costs, fees and other charges incurred in connection with the forex option transaction;

(iii)  The strike price;

(iv)  The underlying retail forex transaction or underlying currency;

(v)  The final exercise date of the forex option purchased or sold; and

(vi)  The date the forex option transaction was executed.

(3)  To each retail forex customer engaging in forex option transactions, upon the expiration or exercise of any option, a written confirmation statement thereof, which statement shall include the date of such occurrence, a description of the option involved, and, in the case of exercise, the details of the retail forex or physical currency position which resulted therefrom including, if applicable, the final trading date of the retail forex transaction underlying the option.

(c)  Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (b)(1) through (3) of this section, a retail forex transaction that is caused to be executed for a pooled investment vehicle that engages in retail forex transactions need be confirmed only to the operator of such pooled investment vehicle.

(d)  Controlled accounts. With respect to any account controlled by any person other than the retail forex customer for whom such account is carried, each FDIC-supervised insured depository institution shall promptly furnish in writing to such other person the information required by paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(e)  Introduced accounts. Each statement provided pursuant to the provisions of this section must, if applicable, show that the account for which the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution was introduced by an introducing broker and the name of the introducing broker.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.22]

[Section 349.10 redesignated as 349.22 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.23  Unlawful representations.

(a)  No implication or representation of limiting losses. No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution engaged in retail foreign exchange transactions or its IAPs may imply or represent that it will, with respect to any retail customer forex account, for or on behalf of any person:

(1)  Guarantee such person or account against loss;

(2)  Limit the loss of such person or account; or

(3)  Not call for or attempt to collect margin as established for retail forex customers.

(b)  No implication of representation of engaging in prohibited acts. No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution or its IAPs may in any way imply or represent that it will engage in any of the acts or practices described in paragraph (a) of this section.

(c)  No Federal government endorsement. No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution or its IAPs may represent or imply in any manner whatsoever that any retail forex transaction or retail forex product has been sponsored, recommended, or approved by the FDIC, the Federal government, or any agency thereof.

(d)  Assuming or sharing of liability from bank error. This section shall not be construed to prevent an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution from assuming or sharing in the losses resulting from the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution's error or mishandling of a retail forex transaction.

(e)  Certain guaranties unaffected. This section shall not affect any guarantee entered into prior to the effective date of this part, but this section shall apply to any extension, modification or renewal thereof entered into after such date.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 3459.23]

[Section 349.11 redesignated as 349.23 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.24  Authorization to trade.

(a)  Specific authorization required. No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may directly or indirectly effect a retail forex transaction for the account of any retail forex customer unless, before the transaction occurs, the retail forex customer specifically authorized the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution to effect the retail forex transaction.

(b)  Requirements for specific authorization. A retail forex transaction is "specifically authorized'' for purposes of this section if the retail forex customer specifies:

(1)  The precise retail forex transaction to be effected;

(2)  The exact amount of the foreign currency to be purchased or sold; and

(3)  In the case of an option, the identity of the foreign currency or contract that underlies the option.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.24]

[Section 349.12 redesignated as 349.24 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.25  Trading and operational standards.

(a)  Internal rules, procedures, and controls required. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution engaging in retail forex transactions shall establish and implement internal policies, procedures, and controls designed, at a minimum, to:

(1)  Ensure, to the extent reasonable, that each order received from a retail forex transaction that is executable at or near the price that the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has quoted to the retail forex customer is entered for execution before any order in any retail forex transaction for

(i)  A any proprietary account;

(ii)  An account in which a related person has an interest, or any account for which such a related person may originate orders without the prior specific consent of the account owner if the related person has gained knowledge of the retail forex customer's order prior to the transmission of an order for a proprietary account;

(iii)  an account in which such a related person has an interest, if the related person has gained knowledge of the retail forex customer's order prior to the transmission of an order for a proprietary account; or

(iv)  an account in which such a related person may originate orders without the prior specific consent of the account owner if the related person has gained knowledge of the retail forex customer's order prior to the transmission of an order for a proprietary account.

(2)  Prevent FDIC-supervised insured depository institution related persons from placing orders, directly or indirectly, with another person in a manner designed to circumvent the provisions of paragraph (a)(1) of this section;

(3)  Fairly and objectively establish settlement prices for retail forex transactions; and

(b)  Disclosure of retail forex transactions. No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution engaging in retail forex transactions may disclose that an order of another person is being held by the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution, unless the disclosure is necessary to the effective execution of such order or the disclosure is made at the request of the FDIC.

(c)  Handling of retail forex accounts of related persons of retail forex counterparties. No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution engaging in retail forex transactions may knowingly handle the retail forex account of an employee of another retail forex counterparty's retail forex business unless the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution:

(1)  Receives written authorization from a person designated by the other retail forex counterparty with responsibility for the surveillance over the account pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section;

(2)  Prepares immediately upon receipt of an order for the account a written record of the order, including the account identification and order number, and records thereon to the nearest minute, by time-stamp or other timing device, the date and time the order is received; and

(3)  Transmits on a regular basis to the other retail forex counterparty copies of all statements for the account and of all written records prepared upon the receipt of orders for such account pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(d)  Related person of FDIC-supervised insured depository institution establishing account at another retail forex counterparty. No related person of an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution working in the institution's retail forex business may have an account, directly or indirectly, with another retail forex counterparty unless the other retail forex counterparty:

(1)  Receives written authorization to open and maintain the an account from a person designated by the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution of which it is a related person with responsibility for the surveillance over the account pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section; and

(2)  Transmits on a regular basis to the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution copies of all statements for such account and of all written records prepared by the other retail forex counterparty upon receipt of orders for the account pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section are transmitted on a regular basis to the retail forex counterparty of which it is a related person.

(e)  Prohibited trading practices. No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution engaging in retail forex transactions may:

(1)  Enter into a retail forex transaction, to be executed pursuant to a market or limit order at a price that is not at or near the price at which other retail forex customers, during that same time period, have executed retail forex transactions with the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution;

(2)  Adjust or alter prices for a retail forex transaction after the transaction has been confirmed to the retail forex customer;

(3)  Provide a retail forex customer a new bid price for a retail forex transaction that is higher than its previous bid without providing a new asked price that is also higher than its previous asked price by a similar amount;

(4)  Provide a retail forex customer a new bid price for a retail forex transaction that is lower than its previous bid without providing a new asked price that is also lower than its previous asked price by a similar amount; or

(5)  Establish a new position for a retail forex customer (except one that offsets an existing position for that retail forex customer) where the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution holds outstanding orders of other retail forex customers for the same currency pair at a comparable price.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.25]

[Section 349.13 redesignated as 349.25 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.26  Supervision.

(a)  Supervision by the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution engaging in retail forex transactions shall diligently supervise the handling by its officers, employees, and agents (or persons occupying a similar status or performing a similar function) of all retail forex accounts carried, operated, or advised by at the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution and all activities of its officers, employees, and agents (or persons occupying a similar status or performing a similar function) relating to its retail forex business.

(b)  Supervision by officers, employees, or agents. An officer, employee, or agent of an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution must diligently supervise his or her subordinates' handling of all retail forex accounts at the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution and all the subordinates' activities relating to the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution's retail forex business.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.26]

[Section 349.14 redesignated as 349.26 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]

§ 349.27  Notice of transfers.

(a)  Prior notice generally required. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution must provide a retail forex customer with 30 days' prior notice of any assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer. The notice must include a statement that the retail forex customer is not required to accept the proposed assignment or transfer and may direct the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution to liquidate the positions of the retail forex customer or transfer the account to a retail forex counterparty of the retail forex customer's selection.

(b)  Exceptions. The requirements of paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to transfers:

(1)  Requested by the retail forex customer;

(2)  Made by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as receiver or conservator under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act; or

(3)  Otherwise authorized by applicable law.

(c)  Obligations of transferee FDIC-supervised insured depository institution. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution to which retail forex accounts or positions are assigned or transferred under paragraph (a) of this section must provide to the affected retail forex customers the risk disclosure statements and forms of acknowledgment required by this part and receive the required signed acknowledgments within sixty days of such assignments or transfers. This requirement shall not apply if the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has clear written evidence that the retail forex customer has received and acknowledged receipt of the required disclosure statements.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.27]

[Section 349.15 redesignated as 349.27 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016

§ 349.28  Customer dispute resolution.

(a)  Voluntary submission of claims to dispute or settlement procedures. No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may enter into any agreement or understanding with a retail forex customer in which the customer agrees, prior to the time a claim or grievance arises, to submit such claim or grievance to any settlement procedure.

(b)  Election of forum. (1) Within ten business days after receipt of notice from the retail forex customer that the customer intends to submit a claim to arbitration, the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution must provide the customer with a list of persons qualified in dispute resolution.

(2)  The customer shall, within 45 days after receipt of such list, notify the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution of the person selected. The customer's failure to provide such notice shall give the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution the right to select a person from the list.

(c)  Enforceability. A dispute settlement procedure may require parties using such procedure to agree, under applicable state law, submission agreement or otherwise, to be bound by an award rendered in the procedure, provided that the agreement to submit the claim or grievance to the voluntary procedure under paragraph (a) of this section or that agreement to submit the claim or grievance was made after the claim or grievance arose. Any award so rendered shall be enforceable in accordance with applicable law.

(d)  Time limits for submission of claims. The dispute settlement procedure used by the parties shall not include any unreasonably short limitation period foreclosing submission of a customer's claims or grievances or counterclaims.

(e)  Counterclaims. A procedure for the settlement of a retail forex customer's claims or grievances against an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution or employee thereof may permit the submission of a counterclaim in the procedure by a person against whom a claim or grievance is brought. Such a counterclaim may be permitted where it arises out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject of the customer's claim or grievance and does not require for adjudication the presence of essential witnesses, parties, or third persons over which the settlement process lacks jurisdiction.

[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 349.28]

[Section 349.16 redesignated as 349.28 at 80 Fed. Reg. 74912, November 30, 2015, effective April 16, 2016]


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