FDIC Law, Regulations, Related Acts
2000 - Rules and Regulations
PART 340RESTRICTIONS ON SALE OF ASSETS OF A FAILED INSTITUTION BY THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION
What is the statutory authority for the regulation, what are its
purpose and scope, and can the FDIC have other policies on related
340.3 What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the purchase with a loan from the FDIC?
340.4 What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC regardless of the method of financing?
340.5 Can the FDIC deny a loan to a buyer who is not disqualified from purchasing assets using seller-financing under this regulation?
340.6 What is the effect of this part on transactions that were entered into before its effective date?
340.7 When is a certification required, and who does not have to provide a certification?
340.8 Does this part apply in the case of a workout, resolution, or settlement of obligations?
Authority: 12 U.S.C. 1819 (Tenth), 1821(p).
§ 340.1 What is the statutory authority for the regulation, what are its purpose and scope, and can the FDIC have other policies on related topics?
(a) Authority. The statutory authority for adopting this part is section 11(p) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (FDI Act), 12 U.S.C. 1821(p). Section 11(p) was added to the FDI Act by section 20 of the Resolution Trust Corporation Completion Act (Pub. L. 103--204, 107 Stat. 2369 (1993)).
(b) Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prohibit individuals or entities that improperly profited or engaged in wrongdoing at the expense of a failed institution or covered financial company, or seriously mismanaged a failed institution, from buying assets of a failed institution from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
(c) Scope. (1) The restrictions of this part generally apply to sales of assets of failed institutions owned or controlled by the FDIC in any capacity.
(2) The restrictions in this section apply to the sale of assets of a subsidiary of a failed institution or a bridge depository institution if the FDIC controls the terms of the sale by agreement or in its role as shareholder.
(3) Unless we determine otherwise, this part does not apply to the sale of securities in connection with the investment of corporate and receivership funds pursuant to the Investment Policy for Liquidation Funds managed by the FDIC as it is in effect from time to time.
(4) In the case of a sale of securities backed by a pool of assets that may include assets of failed institutions by a trust or other entity, this part applies only to the sale of assets by the FDIC to an underwriter in an initial offering, and not to any other purchaser of the securities.
(5) The restrictions of this part do not apply to a sale of a security or a group or index of securities, a commodity, or any qualified financial contract that, in each case, customarily is traded through a financial intermediary, as defined in § 340.2, where the seller cannot control selection of the purchaser and the sale is consummated through that customary practice.
(6) The restrictions of this part do not apply to a judicial sale or a trustee's sale of property that secures an obligation to the FDIC where the sale is not conducted or controlled by the FDIC.
(d) The FDIC retains the authority to establish other policies restricting asset sales. Neither 12 U.S.C. 1821(p) nor this part in any way limits the authority of the FDIC to establish policies prohibiting the sale of assets to prospective purchasers who have injured any failed institution, or to other prospective purchasers, such as certain employees or contractors of the FDIC, or individuals who are not in compliance with the terms of any debt or duty owed to the FDIC. Any such policies may be independent of, in conjunction with, or in addition to the restrictions set forth in this part.
§ 340.2 Definitions.
Many of the terms used in this part are defined in the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, 12 U.S.C. 1811, et seq. Additionally, for the purposes of this part, the following terms are defined:
(a) Associated person of an individual or entity means:
(1) With respect to an individual:
(i) The individual's spouse or dependent child or any member of his or her immediate household;
(ii) A partnership of which the individual is or was a general or limited partner;
(iii) A limited liability company of which the individual is or was a member; or
(iv) A corporation of which the individual is or was an officer or director.
(2) With respect to a partnership, a managing or general partner of the partnership or with respect to a limited liability company, a manager; or
(3) With respect to any entity, an individual or entity who, acting individually or in concert with one or more individuals or entities, owns or controls 25 percent or more of the entity.
(b) Default means any failure to comply with the terms of an obligation to such an extent that:
(1) A judgment has been rendered in favor of the FDIC or a failed institution; or
(2) In the case of a secured obligation, the property securing such obligation is foreclosed on.
(c) FDIC means the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
(d) Failed institution means any insured depository institution (as defined in 12 U.S.C. 1813(c)) that has been under the conservatorship or receivership of the FDIC or any of its predecessors.
(e) Financial intermediary means any broker, dealer, bank, underwriter, exchange, clearing agency registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under section 17A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, transfer agent (as defined in section 3(a)(25) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934), central counterparty or any other entity whose role is to facilitate a transaction by, as a riskless intermediary, purchasing a security or qualified financial contract from one counterparty and then selling it to another.
(f) Obligation means any debt or duty to pay money owed to the FDIC or a failed institution, including any guarantee of any such debt or duty.
(g) Person means an individual, or an entity with a legally independent existence, including: A trustee; the beneficiary of at least a 25 percent share of the proceeds of a trust; a partnership; a corporation; an association; or other organization or society.
(h) Substantial loss means:
(1) An obligation that is delinquent for ninety (90) or more days and on which there remains an outstanding balance of more than $50,000;
(2) An unpaid final judgment in excess of $50,000 regardless of whether it becomes forgiven in whole or in part in a bankruptcy proceeding;
(3) A deficiency balance following a foreclosure of collateral in excess of $50,000, regardless of whether it becomes discharged in whole or in part in a bankruptcy proceeding;
(4) Any loss in excess of $50,000 evidenced by an IRS Form 1099--C (Information Reporting for Cancellation of Debt).
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 340.2]
§ 340.3 What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC if the buyer wants to finance the purchase with a loan from the FDIC?
A person may not borrow money or accept credit from the FDIC in connection with the purchase of any assets of a failed institution from the FDIC if:
(a) There has been a default with respect to one or more obligations totaling in excess of $1,000,000 owed by that person or its associated person; and
(b) The person or its associated person made any fraudulent misrepresentations in connection with any such obligation(s).
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 340.3]
§ 340.4 What are the restrictions on the sale of assets by the FDIC regardless of the method of financing?
(a) A person may not acquire any assets of a failed institution from the FDIC if the person or its associated person:
(1) Has participated, as an officer or director of a failed institution or of an affiliate of a failed institution, in a material way in one or more transaction(s) that caused a substantial loss to that failed institution;
(2) Has been removed from, or prohibited from participating in the affairs of, a failed institution pursuant to any final enforcement action by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the FDIC, or any of their predecessors or successors;
(3) Has demonstrated a pattern or practice of defalcation regarding obligations to any failed institution;
(4) Has been convicted of committing or conspiring to commit any offense under 18 U.S.C. 215, 656, 657, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1008, 1014, 1032, 1341, 1343 or 1344 affecting any failed institution and there has been a default with respect to one or more obligations owed by that person or its associated person; or
(5) Would be prohibited from purchasing the assets of a covered financial company from the FDIC under 12 U.S.C. 5390(r) or its implementing regulation at 12 CFR part 380.13.
(b) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, a person has participated "in a material way in a transaction that caused a substantial loss to a failed institution" if, in connection with a substantial loss to a failed institution, the person has been found in a final determination by a court or administrative tribunal, or is alleged in a judicial or administrative action brought by the FDIC or by any component of the government of the United States or of any state:
(1) To have violated any law, regulation, or order issued by a federal or state banking agency, or breached or defaulted on a written agreement with a federal or state banking agency, or breached a written agreement with a failed institution;
(2) To have engaged in an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting the affairs of a failed institution; or
(3) To have breached a fiduciary duty owed to a failed institution.
(c) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, a person or its associated person has demonstrated a "pattern or practice of defalcation" regarding obligations to a failed institution if the person or associated person has:
(1) Engaged in more than one transaction that created an obligation on the part of such person or its associated person with intent to cause a loss to any insured depository institution or with reckless disregard for whether such transactions would cause a loss to any such insured depository institution; and
(2) The transactions, in the aggregate, caused a substantial loss to one or more failed institution(s).
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 340.4]
§ 340.5 Can the FDIC deny a loan to a buyer who is not disqualified from purchasing assets using seller-financing under this regulation?
The FDIC still has the right to make an independent determination, based upon all relevant facts of a person's financial condition and history, of that person's eligibility to receive any loan or extension of credit from the FDIC, even if the person is not in any way disqualified from purchasing assets from the FDIC under the restrictions set forth in this part.
§ 340.6 What is the effect of this part on transactions that were entered into before its effective date?
This part does not affect the enforceability of a contract of sale and/ or agreement for seller financing in effect prior to July 1, 2000.
§ 340.7 When is a certification required, and who does not have to provide a certification?
(a) Before any person may purchase any asset from the FDIC that person must certify, under penalty of perjury, that none of the restrictions contained in this part applies to the purchase. The person must also certify that neither the identity nor form of the person, nor any aspect of the contemplated transaction, has been created or altered with the intent, in whole or in part, to allow an individual or entity who otherwise would be ineligible to purchase assets from the FDIC to benefit directly or indirectly from the proposed transaction. The FDIC may establish the form of the certification and may change the form from time to time.
(b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, and unless the Director of the FDIC's Division of Resolutions and Receiverships or designee in his or her discretion so requires, a certification need not be provided by:
(1) A state or political subdivision of a state;
(2) A federal agency or instrumentality such as the Government National Mortgage Association;
(3) A federally-regulated, government sponsored enterprise such as the Federal National Mortgage Association or Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation; or
(4) A bridge depository institution.
§ 340.8 Does this part apply in the case of a workout, resolution, or settlement of obligations?
The restrictions of §§ 340.3 and 340.4 do not apply if the sale or transfer of an asset resolves or settles, or is part of the resolution or settlement of, one or more obligations or claims that have been, or could have been, asserted by the FDIC against the person with whom the FDIC is settling regardless of the amount of such obligations or claims.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 340.8]