FDIC Quarterly Banking Profile
Notes To Users
This publication contains financial data and other information for depository institutions insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). These notes are an integral part of this publication and provide information regarding the comparability of source data and reporting differences over time.
Tables I-A through VIII-A.
The information presented in Tables I-A through VIII-A of the FDIC Quarterly Banking Profile is aggregated for all FDIC-insured Call report filers, both commercial banks and savings institutions. Some tables are arrayed by groups of FDIC-insured institutions based on predominant types of asset concentration, while other tables aggregate institutions by asset size and geographic region. Quarterly and full-year data are provided for selected indicators, including aggregate condition and income data, performance ratios, condition ratios, and structural changes, as well as past due, noncurrent, and charge-off information for loans outstanding and other assets.
Tables I-B through VI-B.
The information presented in Tables I-B through VI-B is aggregated for all FDIC-insured commercial banks and savings institutions meeting the criteria for community banks that were developed for the FDIC’s Community Banking Study, published in December, 2012: http://fdic.gov/regulations/resources/cbi/report/cbi-full.pdf.
The determination of which insured institutions are considered community banks is based on five steps.
The first step in defining a community bank is to aggregate all charter-level data reported under each holding company into a single banking organization. This aggregation applies both to balance-sheet measures and the number and location of banking offices. Under the FDIC definition, if the banking organization is designated as a community bank, every charter reporting under that organization is also considered a community bank when working with data at the charter level.
The second step is to exclude any banking organization where more than 50 percent of total assets are held in certain specialty banking charters, including: credit card specialists, consumer nonbank banks, industrial loan companies, trust companies, bankers’ banks, and banks holding 10 percent or more of total assets in foreign offices.
Once the specialty organizations are removed, the third step involves including organizations that engage in basic banking activities as measured by the total loans-to-assets ratio (greater than 33 percent) and the ratio of core deposits to assets (greater than 50 percent). Core deposits are defined as non-brokered deposits in domestic offices. Analysis of the underlying data shows that these thresholds establish meaningful levels of basic lending and deposit gathering and still allow for a degree of diversity in how individual banks construct their balance sheets.
The fourth step includes organizations that operate within a limited geographic scope. This limitation of scope is used as a proxy measure for a bank’s relationship approach to banking. Banks that operate within a limited market area have more ease in managing relationships at a personal level. Under this step, four criteria are applied to each banking organization. They include both a minimum and maximum number of total banking offices, a maximum level of deposits for any one office, and location-based criteria. The limits on the number of and deposits per office are adjusted upward quarterly. For banking offices, banks must have more than one office, and the maximum number of offices is 40 in 1985 and reached 87 in 2016. The maximum level of deposits for any one office is $1.25 billion in deposits in 1985 and reached $6.97 billion in deposits in 2016. The remaining geographic limitations are also based on maximums for the number of states (fixed at 3) and large metropolitan areas (fixed at 2) in which the organization maintains offices. Branch office data are based on the most recent data from the annual June 30 Summary of Deposits Survey that are available at the time of publication.
Finally, the definition establishes an asset-size limit, also adjusted upward quarterly and below which the limits on banking activities and geographic scope are waived. The asset-size limit is $250 million in 1985 and reached $1.39 billion in 2016. This final step acknowledges the fact that most of those small banks that are not excluded as specialty banks meet the requirements for banking activities and geographic limits in any event.
Summary of FDIC Research Definition of Community Banking Organizations
Community banks are designated at the level of the banking organization.
(All charters under designated holding companies are considered community banking charters.)
Exclude: Any organization with:
- No loans or no core deposits
- Foreign Assets ≥ 10% of total assets
- More than 50% of assets in certain specialty banks, including:
Include: All remaining banking organizations with:
- Total assets < indexed size threshold2
- Total assets >= indexed size threshold, where:
- Loan to assets > 33%
- Core deposits to assets > 50%
- More than 1 office but no more than the indexed maximum number of offices.3
- Number of large MSAs with offices <= 2
- Number of states with offices <= 3
- No single office with deposits > indexed maximum branch deposit size.4
1 Consumer nonbank banks are financial institutions with limited charters that can make commercial loans or take deposits, but not both.
2 Asset size threshold indexed to equal $250 million in 1985 and $1.39 billion in 2016.
3 Maximum number of offices indexed to equal 40 in 1985 and 87 in 2016.
4 Maximum branch deposit size indexed to equal $1.25 billion in 1985 and $6.97 billion in 2016.
Tables I-C through IV-C.
A separate set of tables (Tables I-C through IV-C) provides comparative quarterly data related to the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF), problem institutions, failed/assisted institutions, estimated FDIC-insured deposits, as well as assessment rate information. Depository institutions that are not insured by the FDIC through the DIF are not included in the FDIC Quarterly Banking Profile. U.S. branches of institutions headquartered in foreign countries and non-deposit trust companies are not included unless otherwise indicated. Efforts are made to obtain financial reports for all active institutions. However, in some cases, final financial reports are not available for institutions that have closed or converted their charters.
The financial information appearing in this publication is obtained primarily from the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) Consolidated Reports of Condition and Income (Call Reports) and the OTS Thrift Financial Reports submitted by all FDIC-insured depository institutions. (TFR filers began filing Call Reports effective with the quarter ending March 31, 2012.) This information is stored on and retrieved from the FDIC’s Research Information System (RIS) database.
Parent institutions are required to file consolidated reports, while their subsidiary financial institutions are still required to file separate reports. Data from subsidiary institution reports are included in the Quarterly Banking Profile tables, which can lead to double-counting. No adjustments are made for any double-counting of subsidiary data. Additionally, certain adjustments are made to the OTS Thrift Financial Reports to provide closer conformance with the reporting and accounting requirements of the FFIEC Call Reports. (TFR filers began filing Call Reports effective with the quarter ending March 31, 2012.) All condition and performance ratios represent weighted averages, i.e., the sum of the individual numerator values divided by the sum of individual denominator values. All asset and liability figures used in calculating performance ratios represent average amounts for the period (beginning-of-period amount plus end-of-period amount plus any interim periods, divided by the total number of periods). For "pooling-of-interest" mergers, the assets of the acquired institution(s) are included in average assets since the year-to-date income includes the results of all merged institutions. No adjustments are made for "purchase accounting" mergers. Growth rates represent the percentage change over a 12-month period in totals for institutions in the base period to totals for institutions in the current period. For the community bank subgroup, growth rates will reflect changes over time in the number and identities of institutions designated as community banks, as well as changes in the assets and liabilities, and income and expenses of group members. Unless indicated otherwise, growth rates are not adjusted for mergers or other changes in the composition of the community bank subgroup. When community bank growth rates are adjusted for mergers, prior period balances used in the calculations represent totals for the current group of community bank reporters, plus prior period amounts for any institutions that were subsequently merged into current community banks.
All data are collected and presented based on the location of each reporting institution's main office. Reported data may include assets and liabilities located outside of the reporting institution’s home state. In addition, institutions may relocate across state lines or change their charters, resulting in an inter-regional or inter-industry migration, e.g., institutions can move their home offices between regions, savings institutions can convert to commercial banks, or commercial banks may convert to savings institutions.
Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments Related to a Business Combination
In September 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2015-16, "Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments." Under Accounting Standards Codification Topic 805, Business Combinations (formerly FASB Statement No. 141(R), "Business Combinations"), if the initial accounting for a business combination is incomplete by the end of the reporting period in which the combination occurs, the acquirer reports provisional amounts in its financial statements for the items for which the accounting is incomplete. During the measurement period, the acquirer is required to adjust the provisional amounts recognized at the acquisition date, with a corresponding adjustment to goodwill, to reflect new information obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date that, if known, would have affected the measurement of the amounts recognized as of that date. At present under Topic 805, an acquirer is required to retrospectively adjust the provisional amounts recognized at the acquisition date to reflect the new information. To simplify the accounting for the adjustments made to provisional amounts, ASU 2015-16 eliminates the requirement to retrospectively account for the adjustments. Accordingly, the ASU amends Topic 805 to require an acquirer to recognize adjustments to provisional amounts that are identified during the measurement period in the reporting period in which adjustment amounts are determined. Under the ASU, the acquirer also must recognize in the financial statements for the same reporting period the effect on earnings, if any, resulting from the adjustments to the provisional amounts as if the accounting for the business combination had been completed as of the acquisition date.
In general, the measurement period in a business combination is the period after the acquisition date during which the acquirer may adjust provisional amounts reported for identifiable assets acquired, liabilities assumed, and consideration transferred for the acquiree for which the initial accounting for the business combination is incomplete at the end of the reporting period in which the combination occurs. Topic 805 provides additional guidance on the measurement period, which shall not exceed one year from the acquisition date, and adjustments to provisional amounts during this period.
For institutions that are public business entities, as defined under U.S. GAAP, ASU 2015-16 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. For institutions that are not public business entities (i.e., that are private companies), the ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. The ASU’s amendments to Topic 805 should be applied prospectively to adjustments to provisional amounts that occur after the effective date of the ASU. Thus, institutions with a calendar year fiscal year that are public business entities must apply the ASU to any adjustments to provisional amounts that occur after January 1, 2016, beginning with their Call Reports for March 31, 2016. Institutions with a calendar year fiscal year that are private companies must apply the ASU to any adjustments to provisional amounts that occur after January 1, 2017, beginning with their Call Reports for December 31, 2017. Early application of ASU 2015-16 is permitted in Call Reports that have not been submitted.
For additional information, institutions should refer to ASU 2015-16, which is available at http://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/SectionPage&cid=1176156316498 .
Debt Issuance Costs
In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-03, "Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs." This ASU requires debt issuance costs associated with a recognized debt liability to be presented as a direct deduction from the face amount of the related debt liability, similar to debt discounts. The ASU is limited to the presentation of debt issuance costs; therefore, the recognition and measurement guidance for such costs is unaffected. At present, Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Subtopic 835-30, Interest − Imputation of Interest, requires debt issuance costs to be reported on the balance sheet as an asset (i.e., a deferred charge). For Call Report purposes, the costs of issuing debt currently are reported, net of accumulated amortization, in "Other assets."
For institutions that are public business entities, as defined under U.S. GAAP, ASU 2015-03 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. For example, institutions with a calendar year fiscal year that are public business entities must apply the ASU in their Call Reports beginning March 31, 2016. For institutions that are not public business entities (i.e., that are private companies), the ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016. Thus, institutions with a calendar year fiscal year that are private companies must apply the ASU in their December 31, 2016, and subsequent quarterly Call Reports. Early adoption of the guidance in ASU 2015-03 is permitted.
In January 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-01, "Simplifying Income Statement Presentation by Eliminating the Concept of Extraordinary Items." This ASU eliminates from U.S. GAAP the concept of extraordinary items. At present, ASC Subtopic 225-20, Income Statement – Extraordinary and Unusual Items (formerly Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 30, "Reporting the Results of Operations"), requires an entity to separately classify, present, and disclose extraordinary events and transactions. An event or transaction is presumed to be an ordinary and usual activity of the reporting entity unless evidence clearly supports its classification as an extraordinary item. If an event or transaction currently meets the criteria for extraordinary classification, an institution must segregate the extraordinary item from the results of its ordinary operations and report the extraordinary item in its income statement as "Extraordinary items and other adjustments, net of income taxes."
ASU 2015-01 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. Thus, for example, institutions with a calendar year fiscal year must begin to apply the ASU in their Call Reports for March 31, 2016. Early adoption of ASU 2015-01 is permitted provided that the guidance is applied from the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. For Call Report purposes, an institution with a calendar year fiscal year must apply the ASU prospectively, that is, in general, to events or transactions occurring after the date of adoption. However, an institution with a fiscal year other than a calendar year may elect to apply ASU 2015-01 prospectively or, alternatively, it may elect to apply the ASU retrospectively to all prior calendar quarters included in the institution’s year-to-date Call Report income statement that includes the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption.
After an institution adopts ASU 2015-01, any event or transaction that would have met the criteria for extraordinary classification before the adoption of the ASU should be reported in "Other noninterest income," or "Other noninterest expense," as appropriate, unless the event or transaction would otherwise be reportable in the income statement. [As a result of the recent accounting change, year-to-date Third Quarter 2016 "Extraordinary gains, net" on the QBP includes only Discontinued operations expense. Accordingly, comparisons to periods prior to September 2016 are not meaningful, since prior periods included all Extraordinary gains and Discontinued operations expense.] For additional information, institutions should refer to ASU 2015-01, which is available at http://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/SectionPage&cid=1176156316498 .
Accounting by Private Companies for Identifiable Intangible Assets in a Business Combination
In December 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-18, "Accounting for Identifiable Intangible Assets in a Business Combination," which is a consensus of the Private Company Council (PCC). This ASU provides an accounting alternative that permits a private company, as defined in U.S. GAAP (and discussed in a later section of these Supplemental Instructions), to simplify the accounting for certain intangible assets. The accounting alternative applies when a private company is required to recognize or otherwise consider the fair value of intangible assets as a result of certain transactions, including when applying the acquisition method to a business combination under ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations (formerly FASB Statement No. 141 (revised 2007), "Business Combinations").
Under ASU 2014-18, a private company that elects the accounting alternative should no longer recognize separately from goodwill:
- Customer-related intangible assets unless they are capable of being sold or licensed independently from the other assets of a business, and
- Noncompetition agreements.
However, because mortgage servicing rights and core deposit intangibles are regarded as capable of being sold or licensed independently, a private company that elects this accounting alternative must recognize these intangible assets separately from goodwill, initially measure them at fair value, and subsequently measure them in accordance with ASC Topic 350, Intangibles–Goodwill and Other (formerly FASB Statement No. 142, "Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets").
A private company that elects the accounting alternative in ASU 2014-18 also must adopt the private company goodwill accounting alternative described in ASU 2014-02, "Accounting for Goodwill." However, a private company that elects the goodwill accounting alternative in ASU 2014-02 is not required to adopt the accounting alternative for identifiable intangible assets in ASU 2014-18.
A private company’s decision to adopt ASU 2014-18 must be made upon the occurrence of the first business combination (or other transaction within the scope of the ASU) in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015. The effective date of the private company’s decision to adopt the accounting alternative for identifiable intangible assets depends on the timing of that first transaction.
If the first transaction occurs in the private company’s first fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2015, the adoption will be effective for that fiscal year’s annual financial reporting period and all interim and annual periods thereafter. If the first transaction occurs in a fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2016, the adoption will be effective in the interim period that includes the date of the transaction and subsequent interim and annual periods thereafter.
Early application of the intangibles accounting alternative is permitted for any annual or interim period for which a private company’s financial statements have not yet been made available for issuance. Customer-related intangible assets and noncompetition agreements that exist as of the beginning of the period of adoption should continue to be accounted for separately from goodwill, i.e., such existing intangible assets should not be combined with goodwill.
A bank or savings association that meets the private company definition in U.S. GAAP is permitted, but not required, to adopt ASU 2014-18 for Call Report purposes and may choose to early adopt the ASU, provided it also adopts the private company goodwill accounting alternative. If a private institution issues U.S. GAAP financial statements and adopts ASU 2014-18, it should apply the ASU’s intangible asset accounting alternative in its Call Report in a manner consistent with its reporting of intangible assets in its financial statements.
For additional information on the private company accounting alternative for identifiable intangible assets, institutions should refer to ASU 2014-18, which is available at http://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/SectionPage&cid=1176156316498 .
Private Company Accounting Alternatives
In May 2012, the Financial Accounting Foundation, the independent private sector organization responsible for the oversight of the FASB, approved the establishment of the PCC to improve the process of setting accounting standards for private companies. The PCC is charged with working jointly with the FASB to determine whether and in what circumstances to provide alternative recognition, measurement, disclosure, display, effective date, and transition guidance for private companies reporting under U.S. GAAP. Alternative guidance for private companies may include modifications or exceptions to otherwise applicable existing U.S. GAAP standards.
The banking agencies have concluded that a bank or savings association that is a private company, as defined in U.S. GAAP (as discussed in a later section of these Supplemental Instructions), is permitted to use private company accounting alternatives issued by the FASB when preparing its Call Reports, except as provided in 12 U.S.C. 1831n(a) as described in the following sentence. If the agencies determine that a particular accounting principle within U.S. GAAP, including a private company accounting alternative, is inconsistent with the statutorily specified supervisory objectives, the agencies may prescribe an accounting principle for regulatory reporting purposes that is no less stringent than U.S. GAAP. In such a situation, an institution would not be permitted to use that particular private company accounting alternative or other accounting principle within U.S. GAAP for Call Report purposes. The agencies would provide appropriate notice if they were to disallow any accounting alternative under the statutory process.
Accounting by Private Companies for Goodwill
On January 16, 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-02, "Accounting for Goodwill," which is a consensus of the PCC. This ASU generally permits a private company to elect to amortize goodwill on a straight-line basis over a period of ten years (or less than ten years if more appropriate) and apply a simplified impairment model to goodwill. In addition, if a private company chooses to adopt the ASU’s goodwill accounting alternative, the ASU requires the private company to make an accounting policy election to test goodwill for impairment at either the entity level or the reporting unit level. Goodwill must be tested for impairment when a triggering event occurs that indicates that the fair value of an entity (or a reporting unit) may be below its carrying amount. In contrast, U.S. GAAP does not otherwise permit goodwill to be amortized, instead requiring goodwill to be tested for impairment at the reporting unit level annually and between annual tests in certain circumstances. The ASU’s goodwill accounting alternative, if elected by a private company, is effective prospectively for new goodwill recognized in annual periods beginning after December 15, 2014, and in interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2015. Goodwill existing as of the beginning of the period of adoption is to be amortized prospectively over ten years (or less than ten years if more appropriate). The ASU states that early application of the goodwill accounting alternative is permitted for any annual or interim period for which a private company’s financial statements have not yet been made available for issuance.
A bank or savings association that meets the private company definition in ASU 2014-02, as discussed in the following section of these Supplemental Instructions (i.e., a private institution), is permitted, but not required, to adopt this ASU for Call Report purposes and may choose to early adopt the ASU. If a private institution issues U.S. GAAP financial statements and adopts the ASU, it should apply the ASU’s goodwill accounting alternative in its Call Report in a manner consistent with its reporting of goodwill in its financial statements. Thus, for example, a private institution with a calendar year fiscal year that chooses to adopt ASU 2014-02 must apply the ASU’s provisions in its December 31, 2015, and subsequent quarterly Call Reports unless early application of the ASU was elected. This would require the private institution to report in its December 31, 2015, Call Report one year’s amortization of goodwill existing as of January 1, 2015, and the amortization of any new goodwill recognized in 2015.
For additional information on the private company accounting alternative for goodwill, institutions should refer to ASU 2014-02, which is available at http://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/SectionPage&cid=1176156316498 .
Definitions of Private Company and Public Business Entity
According to ASU No. 2014-02, "Accounting for Goodwill," a private company is a business entity that is not a public business entity. ASU No. 2013-12, "Definition of a Public Business Entity," which was issued in December 2013, added this term to the Master Glossary in the Accounting Standards Codification. This ASU states that a business entity, such as a bank or savings association, that meets any one of five criteria set forth in the ASU is a public business entity for reporting purposes under U.S. GAAP, including for Call Report purposes. An institution that is a public business entity is not permitted to apply the private company goodwill accounting alternative discussed in the preceding section when preparing its Call Report.
For additional information on the definition of a public business entity, institutions should refer to ASU 2013-12, which is available at http://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/SectionPage&cid=1176156316498 .
Reporting Certain Government-Guaranteed Mortgage Loans Upon Foreclosure
In August 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-14, "Classification of Certain Government-Guaranteed Mortgage Loans Upon Foreclosure," to address diversity in practice for how government-guaranteed mortgage loans are recorded upon foreclosure. The ASU updates guidance contained in ASC Subtopic 310-40, Receivables – Troubled Debt Restructurings by Creditors (formerly FASB Statement No. 15, "Accounting by Debtors and Creditors for Troubled Debt Restructurings," as amended), because U.S. GAAP previously did not provide specific guidance on how to categorize or measure foreclosed mortgage loans that are government guaranteed. The ASU clarifies the conditions under which a creditor must derecognize a government-guaranteed mortgage loan and recognize a separate "other receivable" upon foreclosure (that is, when a creditor receives physical possession of real estate property collateralizing a mortgage loan in accordance with the guidance in ASC Subtopic 310-40).
Under the ASU, institutions should derecognize a mortgage loan and record a separate other receivable upon foreclosure of the real estate collateral if the following conditions are met:
- The loan has a government guarantee that is not separable from the loan before foreclosure.
- At the time of foreclosure, the institution has the intent to convey the property to the guarantor and make a claim on the guarantee and it has the ability to recover under that claim.
- At the time of foreclosure, any amount of the claim that is determined on the basis of the fair value of the real estate is fixed (that is, the real estate property has been appraised for purposes of the claim and thus the institution is not exposed to changes in the fair value of the property).
This guidance is applicable to fully and partially government-guaranteed mortgage loans provided the three conditions identified above have been met. In such situations, upon foreclosure, the separate other receivable should be measured based on the amount of the loan balance (principal and interest) expected to be recovered from the guarantor. For institutions that are public business entities, as defined under U.S. GAAP (as discussed in an earlier section of these Supplemental Instructions), ASU 2014-14 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2014. For example, institutions with a calendar year fiscal year that are public business entities must apply the ASU in their Call Reports beginning March 31, 2015. However, institutions that are not public business entities (i.e., that are private companies) are not required to apply the guidance in ASU 2014-14 until annual periods ending after December 15, 2015, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2015. Thus, institutions with a calendar year fiscal year that are private companies must apply the ASU in their December 31, 2015, and subsequent quarterly Call Reports. Earlier adoption of the guidance in ASU 2014-14 is permitted if the institution has already adopted the amendments in ASU No. 2014-04, "Reclassification of Residential Real Estate Collateralized Consumer Mortgage Loans upon Foreclosure."
For additional information, institutions should refer to ASU 2014-14, which is available at http://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/SectionPage&cid=1176156316498 .
Reclassification of Residential Real Estate Collateralized Consumer Mortgage Loans Upon Foreclosure
In January 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-04, "Reclassification of Residential Real Estate Collateralized Consumer Mortgage Loans upon Foreclosure," to address diversity in practice for when certain loan receivables should be derecognized and the real estate collateral recognized. The ASU updated guidance contained in Accounting Standards Codification Subtopic 310-40, Receivables-Troubled Debt Restructurings by Creditors (formerly FASB Statement No.15, "Accounting by Debtors and Creditors for Troubled Debt Restructurings," as amended).
Under prior accounting guidance, all loan receivables were reclassified to other real estate owned (OREO) when the institution, as creditor, obtained physical possession of the property, regardless of whether formal foreclosure proceedings had taken place. The new ASU clarifies when a creditor is considered to have received physical possession (resulting from an in-substance repossession or foreclosure) of residential real estate collateralizing a consumer mortgage loan. Under the new guidance, physical possession for these residential real estate properties is considered to have occurred and a loan receivable would be reclassified to OREO only upon:
- The institution obtaining legal title upon completion of a foreclosure even if the borrower has redemption rights that provide the borrower with a legal right for a period of time after foreclosure to reclaim the property by paying certain amounts specified by law, or
- The completion of a deed in lieu of foreclosure or similar legal agreement under which the borrower conveys all interest in the residential real estate property to the institution to satisfy the loan.
Loans secured by real estate other than consumer mortgage loans collateralized by residential real estate should continue to be reclassified to OREO when the institution has received physical possession of a borrower's real estate, regardless of whether formal foreclosure proceedings take place.
For institutions that are public business entities, as defined under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, ASU 2014-04 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2014. For example, institutions with a calendar year fiscal year that are public business entities must apply the ASU in their Call Reports beginning March 31, 2015. However, institutions that are not public business entities are not required to apply the guidance in ASU 2014-04 until annual periods beginning after December 15, 2014, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2015. Thus, institutions with a calendar year fiscal year that are not public business entities must apply the ASU in their December 31, 2015, and subsequent quarterly Call Reports. Earlier adoption of the guidance in ASU 2014-04 is permitted. Entities can elect to apply the ASU on either a modified retrospective transition basis or a prospective transition basis. Applying the ASU on a prospective transition basis should be less complex for institutions than applying the ASU on a modified retrospective transition basis. Under the prospective transition method, an institution should apply the new guidance to all instances where it receives physical possession of residential real estate property collateralizing consumer mortgage loans that occur after the date of adoption of the ASU. Under the modified retrospective transition method, an institution should apply a cumulative-effect adjustment to residential consumer mortgage loans and OREO existing as of the beginning of the annual period for which the ASU is effective. As a result of adopting the ASU on a modified retrospective basis, assets reclassified from OREO to loans should be measured at the carrying value of the real estate at the date of adoption while assets reclassified from loans to OREO should be measured at the lower of the net amount of the loan receivable or the OREO property’s fair value less costs to sell at the time of adoption.
For additional information, institutions should refer to ASU 2014-04, which is available at http://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/SectionPage&cid=1176156316498 .
DEFINITIONS (in alphabetical order)
All other assets - total cash, balances due from depository institutions, premises, fixed assets, direct investments in real estate, investment in unconsolidated subsidiaries, customers’ liability on acceptances outstanding, assets held in trading accounts, federal funds sold, securities purchased with agreements to resell, fair market value of derivatives, prepaid deposit insurance assessments, and other assets.
All other liabilities - bank's liability on acceptances, limited-life preferred stock, allowance for estimated off-balance-sheet credit losses, fair market value of derivatives, and other liabilities.
Assessment base - effective April 1, 2011, the deposit insurance assessment base changed to "average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity" with an additional adjustment to the assessment base for banker’s banks and custodial banks, as permitted under Dodd-Frank. Previously the assessment base was "assessable deposits" and consisted of deposits in banks’ domestic offices with certain adjustments.
Assessment rate schedule - Initial base assessment rates for small institutions are based on a combination of financial ratios and CAMELS component ratings. Initial rates for large institutions—generally those with at least $10 billion in assets—are also based on CAMELS component ratings and certain financial measures combined into two scorecards—one for most large institutions and another for the remaining very large institutions that are structurally and operationally complex or that pose unique challenges and risks in case of failure (highly complex institutions). The FDIC may take additional information into account to make a limited adjustment to a large institution’s scorecard results, which are used to determine a large institution’s initial base assessment rate.
While risk categories for small institutions (except new institutions) were eliminated effective July 1, 2016, initial rates for small institutions are subject to minimums and maximums based on an institution’s CAMELS composite rating. (Risk categories for large institutions were eliminated in 2011.)
The current assessment rate schedule became effective July 1, 2016. Under the current schedule, initial base assessment rates range from 3 to 30 basis points. An institution’s total base assessment rate may differ from its initial rate due to three possible adjustments: (1) Unsecured Debt Adjustment: An institution’s rate may decrease by up to 5 basis points for unsecured debt. The unsecured debt adjustment cannot exceed the lesser of 5 basis points or 50 percent of an institution’s initial base assessment rate (IBAR). Thus, for example, an institution with an IBAR of 3 basis points would have a maximum unsecured debt adjustment of 1.5 basis points and could not have a total base assessment rate lower than 1.5 basis points. (2) Depository Institution Debt Adjustment: For institutions that hold long-term unsecured debt issued by another insured depository institution, a 50 basis point charge is applied to the amount of such debt held in excess of 3 percent of an institution’s Tier 1 capital. (3) Brokered Deposit Adjustment: Rates for large institutions that are not well capitalized or do not have a composite CAMELS rating of 1 or 2 may increase (not to exceed 10 basis points) if their brokered deposits exceed 10 percent of domestic deposits.
The assessment rate schedule effective July 1, 2016, is shown in the following table:
|Total Base Assessment Rates*|
|Established Small Banks
|Large & Highly Complex Institutions**|
|1 or 2||3||4 or 5|
|Initial Base Assessment Rate||3 to 16||6 to 30||16 to 30||3 to 30|
|Unsecured Debt Adjustment||-5 to 0||-5 to 0||-5 to 0||-5 to 0|
|Brokered Deposit Adjustment||N/A||N/A||N/A||0 to 10|
|Total Base Assessment Rate||1.5 to 16||3 to 30||11 to 30||1.5 to 40|
* All amounts for all categories are in basis points annually. Total base rates that are not the minimum or maximum rate will vary between these rates. Total base assessment rates do not include the depository institution debt adjustment.
** Effective July 1, 2016, large institutions are also subject to temporary assessment surcharges in order to raise the reserve ratio from 1.15 percent to 1.35 percent. The surcharges amount to 4.5 basis points of a large institution’s assessment base (after making certain adjustments).
Each institution is assigned a risk-based rate for a quarterly assessment period near the end of the quarter following the assessment period. Payment is generally due on the 30th day of the last month of the quarter following the assessment period. Supervisory rating changes are effective for assessment purposes as of the examination transmittal date.
Assets securitized and sold - total outstanding principal balance of assets securitized and sold with servicing retained or other seller- provided credit enhancements.
Capital Purchase Program (CPP) - As announced in October 2008 under the TARP, the Treasury Department purchase of noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and related warrants that is treated as Tier 1 capital for regulatory capital purposes is included in "Total equity capital." Such warrants to purchase common stock or noncumulative preferred stock issued by publicly-traded banks are reflected as well in "Surplus." Warrants to purchase common stock or noncumulative preferred stock of not-publicly-traded bank stock classified in a bank’s balance sheet as "Other liabilities."
Common equity tier 1 capital ratio – ratio of common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets. Common equity tier 1 capital includes common stock instruments and related surplus, retained earnings, accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI), and limited amounts of common equity tier 1 minority interest, minus applicable regulatory adjustments and deductions. Items that are fully deducted from common equity tier 1 capital include goodwill, other intangible assets (excluding mortgage servicing assets) and certain deferred tax assets; items that are subject to limits in common equity tier 1 capital include mortgage servicing assets, eligible deferred tax assets, and certain significant investments.
Construction and development loans - includes loans for all property types under construction, as well as loans for land acquisition and development.
Core capital - common equity capital plus noncumulative perpetual preferred stock plus minority interest in consolidated subsidiaries, less goodwill and other ineligible intangible assets. The amount of eligible intangibles (including servicing rights) included in core capital is limited in accordance with supervisory capital regulations.
Cost of funding earning assets - total interest expense paid on deposits and other borrowed money as a percentage of average earning assets.
Credit enhancements - techniques whereby a company attempts to reduce the credit risk of its obligations. Credit enhancement may be provided by a third party (external credit enhancement) or by the originator (internal credit enhancement), and more than one type of enhancement may be associated with a given issuance.
Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF) - the Bank (BIF) and Savings Association (SAIF) Insurance Funds were merged in 2006 by the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act to form the DIF.
Derivatives notional amount - the notional, or contractual, amounts of derivatives represent the level of involvement in the types of derivatives transactions and are not a quantification of market risk or credit risk. Notional amounts represent the amounts used to calculate contractual cash flows to be exchanged.
Derivatives credit equivalent amount - the fair value of the derivative plus an additional amount for potential future credit exposure based on the notional amount, the remaining maturity and type of the contract.
Derivatives transaction types:
Futures and forward contracts - contracts in which the buyer agrees to purchase and the seller agrees to sell, at a specified future date, a specific quantity of an underlying variable or index at a specified price or yield. These contracts exist for a variety of variables or indices (traditional agricultural or physical commodities, as well as currencies and interest rates). Futures contracts are standardized and are traded on organized exchanges which set limits on counterparty credit exposure. Forward contracts do not have standardized terms and are traded over the counter.
Option contracts - contracts in which the buyer acquires the right to buy from or sell to another party some specified amount of an underlying variable or index at a stated price (strike price) during a period or on a specified future date, in return for compensation (such as a fee or premium). The seller is obligated to purchase or sell the variable or index at the discretion of the buyer of the contract.
Swaps - obligations between two parties to exchange a series of cash flows at periodic intervals (settlement dates), for a specified period. The cash flows of a swap are either fixed, or determined for each settlement date by multiplying the quantity (notional principal) of the underlying variable or index by specified reference rates or prices. Except for currency swaps, the notional principal is used to calculate each payment but is not exchanged.
Derivatives underlying risk exposure - the potential exposure characterized by the level of banks’ concentration in particular underlying instruments, in general. Exposure can result from market risk, credit risk, and operational risk, as well as, interest rate risk.
Domestic deposits to total assets - total domestic office deposits as a percent of total assets on a consolidated basis.
Earning assets - all loans and other investments that earn interest or dividend income.
Efficiency ratio - Noninterest expense less amortization of intangible assets as a percent of net interest income plus noninterest income. This ratio measures the proportion of net operating revenues that are absorbed by overhead expenses, so that a lower value indicates greater efficiency.
Estimated insured deposits - in general, insured deposits are total domestic deposits minus estimated uninsured deposits. Beginning March 31, 2008, for institutions that file Call Reports, insured deposits are total assessable deposits minus estimated uninsured deposits. Beginning September 30, 2009, insured deposits include deposits in accounts of $100,000 to $250,000 that are covered by a temporary increase in the FDIC’s standard maximum deposit insurance amount (SMDIA). The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act enacted on July 21, 2010, made permanent the standard maximum deposit insurance amount (SMDIA) of $250,000. Also, the Dodd-Frank Act amended the Federal Deposit Insurance Act to include noninterest-bearing transaction accounts as a new temporary deposit insurance account category. All funds held in noninterest-bearing transaction accounts were fully insured, without limit, from December 31, 2010, through December 31, 2012.
Failed/assisted institutions - an institution fails when regulators take control of the institution, placing the assets and liabilities into a bridge bank, conservatorship, receivership, or another healthy institution. This action may require the FDIC to provide funds to cover losses. An institution is defined as "assisted" when the institution remains open and receives assistance in order to continue operating.
Fair Value - the valuation of various assets and liabilities on the balance sheet—including trading assets and liabilities, available-for-sale securities, loans held for sale, assets and liabilities accounted for under the fair value option, and foreclosed assets—involves the use of fair values. During periods of market stress, the fair values of some financial instruments and nonfinancial assets may decline.
FHLB advances - all borrowings by FDIC insured institutions from the Federal Home Loan Bank System (FHLB), as reported by Call Report filers, and by TFR filers prior to March 31, 2012.
Goodwill and other intangibles - intangible assets include servicing rights, purchased credit card relationships, and other identifiable intangible assets. Goodwill is the excess of the purchase price over the fair market value of the net assets acquired, less subsequent impairment adjustments. Other intangible assets are recorded at fair value, less subsequent quarterly amortization and impairment adjustments.
Loans secured by real estate - includes home equity loans, junior liens secured by 1-4 family residential properties, and all other loans secured by real estate.
Loans to individuals - includes outstanding credit card balances and other secured and unsecured consumer loans.
Long-term assets (5+ years) - loans and debt securities with remaining maturities or repricing intervals of over five years.
Maximum credit exposure - the maximum contractual credit exposure remaining under recourse arrangements and other seller-provided credit enhancements provided by the reporting bank to securitizations.
Mortgage-backed securities - certificates of participation in pools of residential mortgages and collateralized mortgage obligations issued or guaranteed by government-sponsored or private enterprises. Also, see "Securities," below.
Net charge-offs - total loans and leases charged off (removed from balance sheet because of uncollectability), less amounts recovered on loans and leases previously charged off.
Net interest margin - the difference between interest and dividends earned on interest-bearing assets and interest paid to depositors and other creditors, expressed as a percentage of average earning assets. No adjustments are made for interest income that is tax exempt.
Net loans to total assets - loans and lease financing receivables, net of unearned income, allowance and reserves, as a percent of total assets on a consolidated basis.
Net operating income - income excluding discretionary transactions such as gains (or losses) on the sale of investment securities and extraordinary items. Income taxes subtracted from operating income have been adjusted to exclude the portion applicable to securities gains (or losses).
Noncurrent assets - the sum of loans, leases, debt securities, and other assets that are 90 days or more past due, or in nonaccrual status.
Noncurrent loans & leases - the sum of loans and leases 90 days or more past due, and loans and leases in nonaccrual status.
Number of institutions reporting - the number of institutions that actually filed a financial report.
New reporters - insured institutions filing quarterly financial reports for the first time.
Other borrowed funds - federal funds purchased, securities sold with agreements to repurchase, demand notes issued to the U.S. Treasury, FHLB advances, other borrowed money, mortgage indebtedness, obligations under capitalized leases and trading liabilities, less revaluation losses on assets held in trading accounts.
Other real estate owned - primarily foreclosed property. Direct and indirect investments in real estate ventures are excluded. The amount is reflected net of valuation allowances. For institutions that file a Thrift Financial Report (TFR), the valuation allowance subtracted also includes allowances for other repossessed assets. Also, for TFR filers the components of other real estate owned are reported gross of valuation allowances. (TFR filers began filing Call Reports effective with the quarter ending March 31, 2012.)
Percent of institutions with earnings gains - the percent of institutions that increased their net income (or decreased their losses) compared to the same period a year earlier.
"Problem" institutions - federal regulators assign a composite rating to each financial institution, based upon an evaluation of financial and operational criteria. The rating is based on a scale of 1 to 5 in ascending order of supervisory concern."Problem" institutions are those institutions with financial, operational, or managerial weaknesses that threaten their continued financial viability. Depending upon the degree of risk and supervisory concern, they are rated either a "4" or "5." The number and assets of "problem" institutions are based on FDIC composite ratings. Prior to March 31, 2008, for institutions whose primary federal regulator was the OTS, the OTS composite rating was used.
Recourse - an arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank’s claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse.
Reserves for losses - the allowance for loan and lease losses on a consolidated basis.
Restructured loans and leases - loan and lease financing receivables with terms restructured from the original contract. Excludes restructured loans and leases that are not in compliance with the modified terms.
Retained earnings - net income less cash dividends on common and preferred stock for the reporting period.
Return on assets - bank net income (including gains or losses on securities and extraordinary items) as a percentage of average (consolidated) total assets. The basic yardstick of bank profitability.
Return on equity - bank net income (including gains or losses on securities and extraordinary items) as a percentage of average total equity capital.
Risk-weighted assets - assets adjusted for risk-based capital definitions which include on-balance-sheet as well as off-balance-sheet items multiplied by risk-weights that range from zero to 200 percent. A conversion factor is used to assign a balance sheet equivalent amount for selected off-balance-sheet accounts.
Securities - excludes securities held in trading accounts. Banks’ securities portfolios consist of securities designated as "held-to-maturity," which are reported at amortized cost (book value), and securities designated as "available-for-sale," reported at fair (market) value.
Securities gains (losses) - realized gains (losses) on held-to-maturity and available-for-sale securities, before adjustments for income taxes. Thrift Financial Report (TFR) filers also include gains (losses) on the sales of assets held for sale. (TFR filers began filing Call Reports effective with the quarter ending March 31, 2012.)
Seller’s interest in institution’s own securitizations - the reporting bank’s ownership interest in loans and other assets that have been securitized, except an interest that is a form of recourse or other seller-provided credit enhancement. Seller’s interests differ from the securities issued to investors by the securitization structure. The principal amount of a seller’s interest is generally equal to the total principal amount of the pool of assets included in the securitization structure less the principal amount of those assets attributable to investors, i.e., in the form of securities issued to investors.
Small Business Lending Fund — The Small Business Lending Fund (SBLF) was enacted into law in September 2010 as part of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 to encourage lending to small businesses by providing capital to qualified community institutions with assets of less than $10 billion. The SBLF Program is administered by the U.S. Treasury Department ( http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sb-programs/Pages/Small-Business-Lending-Fund.aspx ).
Under the SBLF Program, the Treasury Department purchased noncumulative perpetual preferred stock from qualifying depository institutions and holding companies (other than Subchapter S and mutual institutions). When this stock has been issued by a depository institution, it is reported as "Perpetual preferred stock and related surplus." For regulatory capital purposes, this noncumulative perpetual preferred stock qualifies as a component of Tier 1 capital. Qualifying Subchapter S corporations and mutual institutions issue unsecured subordinated debentures to the Treasury Department through the SBLF. Depository institutions that issued these debentures report them as "Subordinated notes and debentures." For regulatory capital purposes, the debentures are eligible for inclusion in an institution’s Tier 2 capital in accordance with their primary federal regulator’s capital standards. To participate in the SBLF Program, an institution with outstanding securities issued to the Treasury Department under the Capital Purchase Program (CPP) was required to refinance or repay in full the CPP securities at the time of the SBLF funding. Any outstanding warrants that an institution issued to the Treasury Department under the CPP remain outstanding after the refinancing of the CPP stock through the SBLF Program unless the institution chooses to repurchase them.
Subchapter S Corporation - a Subchapter S corporation is treated as a pass-through entity, similar to a partnership, for federal income tax purposes. It is generally not subject to any federal income taxes at the corporate level. This can have the effect of reducing institutions’ reported taxes and increasing their after-tax earnings.
Trust assets - market value, or other reasonably available value of fiduciary and related assets, to include marketable securities, and other financial and physical assets. Common physical assets held in fiduciary accounts include real estate, equipment, collectibles, and household goods. Such fiduciary assets are not included in the assets of the financial institution.
Unearned income & contra accounts - unearned income for Call Report filers only.
Unused loan commitments - includes credit card lines, home equity lines, commitments to make loans for construction, loans secured by commercial real estate, and unused commitments to originate or purchase loans. (Excluded are commitments after June 2003 for originated mortgage loans held for sale, which are accounted for as derivatives on the balance sheet.)
Yield on earning assets - total interest, dividend, and fee income earned on loans and investments as a percentage of average earning assets.