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6500 - Consumer Protection

Section 226.12--Special Credit Card Provisions

1.  Scope.  Sections 226.12(a) and (b) deal with the issuance and liability rules for credit cards, whether the card is intended for consumer, business, or any other purposes. Sections 226.12(a) and (b) are exceptions to the general rule that the regulation applies only to consumer credit. (See §§ 226.1 and 226.3.)

12(a)  Issuance of credit cards.

Paragraph 12(a)(1).

1.  Explicit request.  A request or application for a card must be explicit. For example, a request for overdraft privileges on a checking account does not constitute an application for a credit card with overdraft checking features.

2.  Addition of credit features.  If the consumer has a non-credit card, the addition of credit features to the card (for example, the granting of overdraft privileges on a checking account when the consumer already has a check guarantee card) constitutes issuance of a credit card.

3.  Variance of card from request.  The request or application need not correspond exactly to the card that is issued. For example:

•   The name of the card requested may be different when issued.

•   The card may have features in addition to those reflected in the request or application.

4.  Permissible form of request.  The request or application may be oral (in response to a telephone solicitation by a card issuer, for example) or written.

5.  Time of issuance.  A credit card may be issued in response to a request made before any cards are ready for issuance (for example, if a new program is established), even if there is some delay in issuance.

6.  Persons to whom cards may be issued.  A card issuer may issue a credit card to the person who requests it, and to anyone else for whom that person requests a card and who will be an authorized user on the requester's account. In other words, cards may be sent to consumer A on A's request, and also (on A's request) to consumers B and C, who will be authorized users on A's account. In these circumstances, the following rules apply:

•   The additional cards may be imprinted in either A's name or in the names of B and C.

•   No liability for unauthorized use (by persons other than B and C), not even the $50, may be imposed on B or C since they are merely users and not "cardholders" as that term is defined in § 226.2 and used in § 226.12(b); of course, liability of up to $50 for unauthorized use of B's and C's cards may be imposed on A.

•  Whether B and C may be held liable for their own use, or on the account generally, is a matter of state or other applicable law.

7.  Issuance of non-credit cards. i. General. Under § 226.12(a)(1), a credit card cannot be issued except in response to a request or an application. (See comment 2(a)(15)--2 for examples of cards or devices that are and are not credit cards.) A non-credit card may be sent on an unsolicited basis by an issuer that does not propose to connect the card to any credit plan; a credit feature may be added to a previously issued non-credit card only upon the consumer's specific request.

ii.  Examples. A purchase-price discount card may be sent on an unsolicited basis by an issuer that does not propose to connect the card to any credit plan. An issuer demonstrates that it proposes to connect the card to a credit plan by, for example, including promotional materials about credit features or account agreements and disclosures required by § 226.6. The issuer will violate the rule against unsolicited issuance if, for example, at the time the card is sent a credit plan can be accessed by the card or the recipient of the unsolicited card has been preapproved for credit that the recipient can access by contacting the issuer and activating the card.

8.  Unsolicited issuance of PINs.  A card issuer may issue personal identification numbers (PINs) to existing credit cardholders without a specific request from the cardholders, provided the PINs cannot be used alone to obtain credit. For example, the PINs may be necessary if consumers wish to use their existing credit cards at automated teller machines or at merchant locations with point-of-sale terminals that require PINs.

Paragraph 12(a)(2).

1.  Renewal.  "Renewal" generally contemplates the regular replacement of existing cards because of, for example, security reasons or new technology or systems. It also includes the re-issuance of cards that have been suspended temporarily, but does not include the opening of a new account after a previous account was closed.

2.  Substitution--examples.  "Substitution" encompasses the replacement of one card with another because the underlying account relationship has changed in some way--such as when the card issuer has:

•  Changed its name.

•  Changed the name of the card.

•  Changed the credit or other features available on the account. For example, the original card could be used to make purchases and obtain cash advances at teller windows. The substitute card might be usable, in addition, for obtaining cash advances through automated teller machines. (If the substitute card constitutes an access device, as defined in Regulation E, then the Regulation E issuance rules would have to be followed.) The "substitution" of one card with another on an unsolicited basis is not permissible, however, where in conjunction with the substitution an additional credit card account is opened and the consumer is able to make new purchases or advances under both the original and the new account with the new card. For example, if a retail card issuer replaces its credit card with a combined retailer/bank card, each of the creditors maintains a separate account, and both accounts can be accessed for new transactions by use of the new credit card, the card cannot be provided to a consumer without solicitation.

•  Substituted a card user's name on the substitute card for the cardholder's name appearing on the original card.

•  Changed the merchant base. However, the new card must be honored by at least one of the persons that honored the original card.

3.  Substitution--successor card issuer.   "Substitution" also occurs when a successor card issuer replaces the original card issuer (for example, when a new card issuer purchases the accounts of the original issuer and issues its own card to replace the original one). A permissible substitution exists even if the original issuer retains the existing receivables and the new card issuer acquires the right only to future receivables, provided use of the original card is cut off when use of the new card becomes possible.

4.  Substitution--non-credit-card plan.  A credit card that replaces a retailer's open-end credit plan not involving a credit card is not considered a substitute for the retailer's plan--even if the consumer used the retailer's plan. A credit card cannot be issued in these circumstances without a request or application.

5.  One-for-one-rule.  An accepted card may be replaced by no more than one renewal or substitute card. For example, the card issuer may not replace a credit card permitting purchases and cash advances with two cards, one for the purchases and another for the cash advances.

6.  One-for-one rule--exceptions. The regulation does not prohibit the card issuer from:

i.  Replacing a debit/credit card with a credit card and another card with only debit functions (or debit functions plus an associated overdraft capability), since the latter card could be issued on an unsolicited basis under Regulation E.

ii.  Replacing an accepted cared with more than one renewal or substitute card, provided that:

A.  No replacement card accesses any account not accessed by the accepted card;

B.  For terms and conditions required to be disclosed under § 226.6, all replacement cards are issued subject to the same terms and conditions, except that a creditor may vary terms for which no change in terms notice is required under § 226.9(c); and

C.  Under the account's terms the consumer's total liability for unauthorized use with respect to the account does not increase.

7.  Methods of terminating replaced card.  The card issuer need not physically retrieve the original card, provided the old card is voided in some way; for example:

•  The issuer includes with the new card a notification that the existing card is no longer valid and should be destroyed immediately.

•  The original card contained an expiration date.

•  The card issuer, in order to preclude use of the card, reprograms computers or issues instructions to authorization centers.

8.  Incomplete replacement.  If a consumer has duplicate credit cards on the same account (card A--one type of bank credit card, for example), the card issuer may not replace the duplicate cards with one card A and one card B (card B--another type of bank credit card) unless the consumer requests card B.

9.  Multiple entities.  Where multiple entities share responsibilities with respect to a credit card issued by one of them, the entity that issued the card may replace it on an unsolicited basis, if that entity terminates the original card by voiding it in some way, as described in comment 12(a)(2)--7. The other entity or entities may not issue a card on an unsolicited basis in these circumstances.

12(b)  Liability of cardholder for unauthorized use.

1.  Meaning of "cardholder."   For purposes of this provision, "cardholder" includes any person (including organizations) to whom a credit card is issued for any purpose, including business. When a corporation is the cardholder, required disclosures should be provided to the corporation (as opposed to an employee user).

2.  Imposing liability.  A card issuer is not required to impose liability on a cardholder for the unauthorized use of a credit card; if the card issuer does not seek to impose liability, the issuer need not conduct any investigation of the cardholder's claim.

3.  Reasonable investigation.  If a card issuer seeks to impose liability when a claim of unauthorized use is made by a cardholder, the card issuer must conduct a reasonable investigation of the claim. In conducting its investigation, the card issuer may reasonably request the cardholder's cooperation. The card issuer may not automatically deny a claim based solely on the cardholder's failure or refusal to comply with a particular request; however, if the card issuer otherwise has no knowledge of facts confirming the unauthorized use, the lack of information resulting from the cardholder's failure or refusal to comply with a particular request may lead the card issuer reasonably to terminate the investigation. The procedures involved in investigating claims may differ, but actions such as the following represent steps that a card issuer may take, as appropriate, in conducting a reasonable investigation:

i.  Reviewing the types or amounts of purchases made in relation to the cardholder's previous purchasing pattern.

ii.  Reviewing where the purchases were delivered in relation to the cardholder's residence or place of business.

iii.  Reviewing where the purchases were made in relation to where the cardholder resides or has normally shopped.

iv.  Comparing any signature on credit slips for the purchases to the signature of the cardholder or an authorized user in the card issuer's records, including other credit slips.

v.  Requesting documentation to assist in the verification of the claim.

vi.  Requesting a written, signed statement from the cardholder or authorized user.

vii.  Requesting a copy of a police report, if one was filed.

viii.  Requesting information regarding the cardholder's knowledge of the person who allegedly used the card or of that person's authority to do so.

12(b)(1)  Limitation on amount

1.  Meaning of "authority."   Footnote 22 defines unauthorized use in terms of whether the user has "actual, implied, or apparent authority." Whether such authority exists must be determined under state or other applicable law.

2.  Liability limits--dollar amounts.  As a general rule, the cardholder's liability for a series of unauthorized uses cannot exceed either $50 or the value obtained through the unauthorized use before the card issuer is notified, whichever is less.

12(b)(2)  Conditions of liability.

1.  Issuer's option not to comply.  A card issuer that chooses not to impose any liability on cardholders for unauthorized use need not comply with the disclosure and identification requirements discussed below.

Paragraph 12(b)(2)(ii).

1.  Disclosure of liability and means of notifying issuer.  The disclosures referred to in § 226.12(b)(2)(ii) may be given, for example, with the initial disclosures under § 226.6, on the credit card itself, or on periodic statements. They may be given at any time preceding the unauthorized use of the card.

Paragraph 12(b)(2)(iii).

1.  Means of identifying cardholder or user.   To fulfill the condition set forth in § 226.12(b)(2)(iii), the issuer must provide some method whereby the cardholder or the authorized user can be identified. This could include, for example, signature, photograph, or fingerprint on the card, or electronic or mechanical confirmation.

2.  Identification by magnetic strip.  Unless a magnetic strip (or similar device not readable without physical aids) must be used in conjunction with a secret code or the like, it would not constitute sufficient means of identification. Sufficient identification also does not exist if a "pool" or group card, issued to a corporation and signed by a corporate agent who will not be a user of the card, is intended to be used by another employee for whom no means of identification is provided.

3.  Transactions not involving card.  The cardholder may not be held liable under § 226.12(b) when the card itself (or some other sufficient means of identification of the cardholder) is not presented. Since the issuer has not provided a means to identify the user under these circumstances, the issuer has not fulfilled one of the conditions for imposing liability. For example, when merchandise is ordered by telephone by a person without authority to do so, using a credit card account number or other number only (which may be widely available), no liability may be imposed on the cardholder.

12(b)(3) Notification to card issuer.

1.  How notice must be provided.  Notice given in a normal business manner--for example, by mail, telephone, or personal visit--is effective even though it is not given to, or does not reach, some particular person within the issuer's organization. Notice also maybe effective even though it is not given at the address or phone number disclosed by the card issuer under § 226.12(b)(2)(ii).

2.  Who must provide notice.  Notice of loss, theft, or possible unauthorized use need not be initiated by the cardholder. Notice is sufficient so long as it gives the "pertinent information" which would include the name or card number of the cardholder and an indication that unauthorized use has or may have occurred.

3.  Relationship to § 226.13.  The liability protections afforded to cardholders in § 226.12 do not depend upon the cardholder's following the error resolution procedures in § 226.13. For example, the written notification and time limit requirements of § 226.13 do not affect the section 226.12 protections.

12(b)(5) Business use of credit cards.

1.  Agreement for higher liability for business use cards.  The card issuer may not rely on § 226.12(b)(5) if the business is clearly not in a position to provide 10 or more cards to employees (for example, if the business has only three employees). On the other hand, the issuer need not monitor the personnel practices of the business to make sure that it has at least 10 employees at all times.

2.  Unauthorized use by employee.  The protection afforded to an employee against liability for unauthorized use in excess of the limits set in § 226.12(b) applies only to unauthorized use by someone other than the employee. If the employee uses the card in an unauthorized manner, the regulation sets no restriction on the employee's potential liability for such use.

12(c) Right of cardholder to assert claims or defenses against card issuer.

1.  Relationship to § 226.13.  The § 226.12(c) credit card "holder in due course" provision deals with the consumer's right to assert against the card issuer a claim or defense concerning property or services purchased with a credit card, if the merchant has been unwilling to resolve the dispute. Even though certain merchandise disputes, such as nondelivery of goods, may also constitute "billing errors" under § 226.13, that section operates independently of § 226.12(c). The cardholder whose asserted billing error involves undelivered goods may institute the error resolution procedures of § 226.13; but whether or not the cardholder has done so, the cardholder may assert claims or defenses under § 226.12(c). Conversely, the consumer may pay a disputed balance and thus have no further right to assert claims and defenses, but still may assert a billing error if notice of that billing error is given in the proper time and manner. An assertion that a particular transaction resulted from unauthorized use of the card could also be both a "defense" and a billing error.

2.  Claims and defenses assertible.  Section 226.12(c) merely preserves the consumer's right to assert against the card issuer any claims or defenses that can be asserted against the merchant. It does not determine what claims or defenses are valid as to the merchant; this determination must be made under state or other applicable law.

12(c)(1) General rule.

1.  Situations excluded and included.  The consumer may assert claims or defenses only when the goods or services are "purchased with the credit card." This could include:

•  Mail or telephone orders, if the purchase is charged to the credit card account.

But it would exclude:

•  Use of a credit card to obtain a cash advance, even if the consumer then uses the money to purchase goods or services. Such a transaction would not involve "property or services purchased with the credit card."

•  The purchase of goods or services by use of a check accessing an overdraft account and a credit card used solely for identification of the consumer. (On the other hand, if the credit card is used to make partial payment for the purchase and not merely for identification, the right to assert claims or defenses would apply to credit extended via the credit card, although not to the credit extended on the overdraft line.)

•  Purchases made by use of a check guarantee card in conjunction with a cash advance check (or by cash advance checks alone). See footnote 24. A cash advance check is a check that, when written, does not draw on an asset account; instead, it is charged entirely to an open-end credit account.

•  Purchases effected by use of either a check guarantee card or a debit card when used to draw on overdraft credit lines (see footnote 24). The debit card exemption applies whether the card accesses an asset account via point-of-sale terminals, automated teller machines, or in any other way, and whether the card qualifies as an "access device" under Regulation E or is only a paper-based debit card. If a card serves both as an ordinary credit card and also as check guarantee or debit card, a transaction will be subject to this rule on asserting claims and defenses when used as an ordinary credit card, but not when used as a check guarantee or debit card.

12(c)(2) Adverse credit reports prohibited.

1.  Scope of prohibition.  Although an amount in dispute may not be reported as delinquent until the matter is resolved:

i.  That amount may be reported as disputed.

ii.  Nothing in this provision prohibits the card issuer from undertaking its normal collection activities for the delinquent and undisputed portion of the account.

2.  Settlement of dispute. A card issuer may not consider a dispute settled and report an amount disputed as delinquent or begin collection of the disputed amount until it has completed a reasonable investigation of the cardholder's claim. A reasonable investigation requires an independent assessment of the cardholder's claim based on information obtained from both the cardholder and the merchant, if possible. In conducting an investigation, the card issuer may request the cardholder's reasonable cooperation. The card issuer may not automatically consider a dispute settled if the cardholder fails or refuses to comply with a particular request. However, if the card issuer otherwise has no means of obtaining information necessary to resolve the dispute, the lack of information resulting from the cardholder's failure or refusal to comply with a particular request may lead the card issuer reasonably to terminate the investigation.

12(c)(3) Limitations.

Paragraph 12(c)(3)(i).

1.  Resolution with merchant.  The consumer must have tried to resolve the dispute with the merchant. This does not require any special procedures or correspondence between them, and is a matter for factual determination in each case. The consumer is not required to seek satisfaction from the manufacturer of the goods involved. When the merchant is in bankruptcy proceedings, the consumer is not required to file a claim to those proceedings.

Paragraph 12(c)(3)(ii).

1.  Geographic limitation.  The question of where a transaction occurs (as in the case of mail or telephone orders, for example) is to be determined under state or other applicable law.

2.  Merchant honoring card.  The exceptions (stated in footnote 26) to the amount and geographic limitations do not apply if the merchant merely honors, or indicates through signs or advertising that it honors, a particular credit card.

12(d) Offsets by card issuer prohibited.

Paragraph 12(d)(1).

1.  "Holds" on accounts.  "Freezing" or placing a hold on funds in the cardholder's deposit account is the functional equivalent of an offset and would contravene the prohibition in § 226.12(d)(1), unless done in the context of one of the exceptions specified in § 226.12(d)(2). For example, if the terms of a security agreement permitted the card issuer to place a hold on the funds, the hold would not violate the offset prohibition. Similarly, if an order of a bankruptcy court required the card issuer to turn over deposit account funds to the trustee in bankruptcy, the issuer would not violate the regulation by placing a hold on the funds in order to comply with the court order.

2.  Funds intended as deposits.  If the consumer tenders funds as a deposit (to a checking account, for example), the card issuer may not apply the funds to repay indebtedness on the consumer's credit card account.

3.  Types of indebtedness; overdraft accounts.  The offset prohibition applies to any indebtedness arising from transactions under a credit card plan, including accrued finance charges and other charges on the account. The prohibition also applies to balances arising from transactions not using the credit card itself but taking place under plans that involve credit cards. For example, if the consumer writes a check that accesses an overdraft line of credit, the resulting indebtedness is subject to the offset prohibition since it is incurred through a credit card plan, even though the consumer did not use an associated check guarantee or debit card.

4.  When prohibition applies in case of termination of account.  The offset prohibition applies even after the card issuer terminates the cardholder's credit card privileges, if the indebtedness was incurred prior to termination. If the indebtedness was incurred after termination, the prohibition does not apply.

Paragraph 12(d)(2).

1.  Security interest--limitations.  In order to qualify for the exception stated in § 226.12(d)(2), a security interest must be affirmatively agreed to by the consumer and must be disclosed in the issuer's initial disclosures under § 226.6. The security interest must not be the functional equivalent of a right of offset; as a result, routinely including in agreements contract language indicating that consumers are giving a security interest in any deposit accounts maintained with the issuer does not result in a security interest that falls within the exception in § 226.12(d)(2). For a security interest to qualify for the exception under § 226.12(d)(2) the following conditions must be met:

• The consumer must be aware that granting a security interest is a condition for the credit card account (or for more favorable account terms) and must specifically intend to grant a security interest in a deposit account. Indicia of the consumer's awareness and intent could include for example:

--Separate signature or initials on the agreement indicating that a security interest is being given

--Placement of the security agreement on a separate page, or otherwise separating the security interest provisions from other contract and disclosure provisions

--Reference to a specific amount of deposited funds or to a specific deposit account number

• The security interest must be obtainable and enforceable by creditors generally. If other creditors could not obtain a security interest in the consumer's deposit accounts to the same extent as the card issuer, the security interest is prohibited by § 226.12(d)(2).

2.  Security interest--after-acquired property.  As used in § 226.12(d), the term "security interest" does not exclude (as it does for other Regulation Z purposes) interests in after-acquired property. Thus, a consensual security interest in deposit-account funds, including funds deposited after the granting of the security interest, would constitute a permissible exception to the prohibition on offsets.

3.  Court order.  If the card issuer obtains a judgment against the cardholder, and if state and other applicable law and the terms of the judgment do not so prohibit, the card issuer may offset the indebtedness against the cardholder's deposit account.

Paragraph 12(d)(3).

1.  Automatic payment plans--scope of exception.  With regard to automatic debit plans under § 226.12(d)(3), the following rules apply:

• The cardholder's authorization must be in writing and signed or initialed by the cardholder.

• The authorizing language need not appear directly above or next to the cardholder's signature or initials, provided it appears on the same document and that it clearly spells out the terms of the automatic debit plan.

• If the cardholder has the option to accept or reject the automatic debit feature (such option may be required under § 913 of the Electronic Fund Transfer Act), the fact that the option exists should be clearly indicated.

2.  Automatic payment plans--additional exceptions.  The following practices are not prohibited by § 226.12(d)(1):

• Automatically deducting charges for participation in a program of banking services (one aspect of which may be a credit card plan).

• Debiting the cardholder's deposit account on the cardholder's specific request rather than on an automatic periodic basis (for example, a cardholder might check a box on the credit card bill stub, requesting the issuer to debit the cardholder's account to pay that bill).

12(e)  Prompt notification of returns and crediting of refunds.

Paragraph 12(e)(1).

1.  Normal channels.  The term "normal channels" refers to any network or interchange system used for the processing of the original charge slips (or equivalent information concerning the transaction).

Paragraph 12(e)(2).

1.  Crediting account.  The card issuer need not actually post the refund to the consumer's account within three business days after receiving the credit statement, provided that it credits the account as of a date within that time period.


Statute:  Secs. 103(1), 132, 133, 135, 162, 166, 167, 169, and 170.

Other sections:  § 226.13.

Other regulations:  Regulation E (12 CFR 205).

Previous regulation:  § 226.13.

1981 changes:  The issuance rules in § 226.12(a) make clear that cards may be sent to the person making the request and also to any other person for whom a card is requested, except that no liability for unauthorized use may be imposed on persons who are only authorized users.

The principal differences in § 226.12(b) about conditions of liability are as follows: the requirement that the cardholder be given a postage-paid, preaddressed card or envelope for notification of loss or theft has been deleted (corresponding to an amendment to the act); the required disclosures of maximum liability and of means of notification have been simplified; and the required provision of a means of identification has been changed in that the issuer now may provide a means to identify either the cardholder or the authorized user. Finally, anyone may provide the notification to the card issuer, not just the cardholder.

Section 226.12(d) on offsets clarifies that the offset prohibition does not apply to consensual security interests. The separate promptness standard which used to apply in addition to the seven-business-day and three-business-day standards has been deleted from § 226.12(e) on prompt notification of returns. Section 226.12(f) now clarifies rules on clearing accounts.

Section 226.12(g), dealing with the relationship of the regulation to Regulation E (Electronic Fund Transfers), has been added.

Section 226.13—Billing-Error Resolution

1.  General prohibitions.  Footnote 27 prohibits a creditor from responding to a consumer's billing error allegation by accelerating the debt or closing the account, and reflects protections authorized by § 161(d) of the Truth in Lending Act and § 701 of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act. The footnote also alerts creditors that failure to comply with the error resolution procedures may result in the forfeiture of disputed amounts as prescribed in § 161(e) of the act. (Any failure to comply may also be a violation subject to the liability provisions of § 130 of the act.)

2.  Charges for error resolution.  If a billing error occurred, whether as alleged or in a different amount or manner, the creditor may not impose a charge related to any aspect of the error resolution process (including charges for documentation or investigation) and must credit the consumer's account if such a charge was assessed pending resolution. Since the act grants the consumer error resolution rights, the creditor should avoid any chilling effect on the good faith assertion of errors that might result if charges are assessed when no billing error has occurred.

13(a)  Definition of billing error.

1.  Actual, implied, or apparent authority.   Whether use of a credit card or open-end credit plan is authorized is determined by state or other applicable law.

Paragraph 13(a)(3).

1.  Coverage.  Section 226.13(a)(3) covers disputes about goods or services that are "not accepted" or "not delivered... as agreed"; for example:

•  The appearance on a periodic statement of a purchase, when the consumer refused to take delivery of goods because they did not comply with the contract.

•  Delivery of property or services different from that agreed upon.

•  Delivery of the wrong quantity.

•  Late delivery.

•  Delivery to the wrong location.

Section 226.13(a)(3) does not apply to a dispute relating to the quality of property or services that the consumer accepts. Whether acceptance occurred is determined by state or other applicable law.

Paragraph 13(a)(5).

1.  Computational errors.  In periodic statements that are combined with other information, the error resolution procedures are triggered only if the consumer asserts a computational billing error in the credit-related portion of the periodic statement. For example:

•  If a bank combines a periodic statement reflecting the consumer's credit card transactions with the consumer's monthly checking statement, a computational error in the checking account portion of the combined statement is not a billing error.

Paragraph 13(a)(6).

1.  Documentation requests.  A request for documentation such as receipts or sales slips, unaccompanied by an allegation of an error under § 226.13(a) or a request for additional clarification under § 226.13(a)(6), does not trigger the error resolution procedures. For example, a request for documentation merely for purposes such as tax preparation or recordkeeping does not trigger the error resolution procedures.

13(b)  Billing error notice.

1.  Withdrawal.  The consumer's withdrawal of a billing error notice may be oral or written.

Paragraph 13(b)(1).

1.  Failure to send periodic statement--timing.  If the creditor has failed to send a periodic statement, the 60-day period runs from the time the statement should have been sent. Once the statement is provided, the consumer has another 60 days to assert any billing errors reflected on it.

2.  Failure to reflect credit--timing.  If the periodic statement fails to reflect a credit to the account, the 60-day period runs from transmittal of the statement on which the credit should have appeared.

3.  Transmittal.  If a consumer has arranged for periodic statements to be held at the financial institution until called for, the statement is "transmitted" when it is first made available to the consumer.

Paragraph 13(b)(2).

1.  Identity of the consumer.  The billing error notice need not specify both the name and the account number if the information supplied enables the creditor to identify the consumer's name and account.

13(c)  Time for resolution; general procedures.

1.  Temporary or provisional corrections.  A creditor may temporarily correct the consumer's account in response to a billing error notice, but is not excused from complying with the remaining error resolution procedures within the time limits for resolution.

2.  Correction without investigation.  A creditor may correct a billing error in the manner and amount asserted by the consumer without the investigation or the determination normally required. The creditor must comply, however, with all other applicable provisions. If a creditor follows this procedure, no presumption is created that a billing error occurred.

Paragraph 13(c)(2).

1.  Time for resolution.  The phrase "two complete billing cycles" means two actual billing cycles occurring after receipt of the billing error notice, not a measure of time equal to two billing cycles. For example, if a creditor on a monthly billing cycle receives a billing error notice mid-cycle, it has the remainder of that cycle plus the next two full billing cycles to resolve the error.

13(d)  Rules pending resolution.

1.  Disputed amount.  "Disputed amount" is the dollar amount alleged by the consumer to be in error. When the allegation concerns the description or identification of the transaction (such as the date or the seller's name) rather than a dollar amount, the disputed amount is the amount of the transaction or charge that corresponds to the disputed transaction identification. If the consumer alleges a failure to send a periodic statement under § 226.13(a)(7), the disputed amount is the entire balance owing.

13(d)(1)  Consumer's right to withhold disputed amount; collection action prohibited.

1.  Prohibited collection actions.  During the error resolution period, the creditor is prohibited from trying to collect the disputed amount from the consumer. Prohibited collection actions include, for example, instituting court action, taking a lien, or instituting attachment proceedings.

2.  Right to withhold payment.  If the creditor reflects any disputed amount or related finance or other charges on the periodic statement, and is therefore required to make the disclosure under footnote 30, the creditor may comply with that disclosure requirement by indicating that payment of any disputed amount is not required pending resolution. Making a disclosure that only refers to the disputed amount would, of course, in no way affect the consumer's right under § 226.13(d)(1) to withhold related finance and other charges. The disclosure under footnote 30 need not appear in any specific place on the periodic statement, need not state the specific amount that the consumer may withhold, and may be preprinted on the periodic statement.

3.  Imposition of additional charges on undisputed amounts.  The consumer's withholding of a disputed amount from the total bill cannot subject undisputed balances (including new purchases or cash advances made during the present or subsequent cycles) to the imposition of finance or other charges. For example, if on an account with a free-ride period (that is, an account in which paying the new balance in full allows the consumer to avoid the imposition of additional finance charges), a consumer disputes a $2 item out of a total bill of $300 and pays $298 within the free-ride period, the consumer would not lose the free-ride as to any undisputed amounts, even if the creditor determines later that no billing error occurred. Furthermore, finance or other charges may not be imposed on any new purchases or advances that, absent the unpaid disputed balance, would not have finance or other charges imposed on them. Finance or other charges that would have been incurred even if the consumer had paid the disputed amount would not be affected.

4.  Automatic payment plans--coverage.  The coverage of this provision is limited to the card issuer's intra-institutional payment plans. It does not apply to:

•  Inter-institutional payment plans that permit a cardholder to pay automatically any credit card indebtedness from an asset account not held by the card issuer receiving payment.

•  Intra-institutional automatic payment plans offered by financial institutions that are not credit card issuers.

5.  Automatic payment plans--time of notice.  While the card issuer does not have to restore or prevent the debiting of a disputed amount if the billing error notice arrives after the three-business-day cut-off, the card issuer must, however, prevent the automatic debit of any part of the disputed amount that is still outstanding and unresolved at the time of the next scheduled debit date.

13(d)(2) Adverse credit reports prohibited.

1.  Report of dispute.  Although the creditor must not issue an adverse credit report because the consumer fails to pay the disputed amount or any related charges, the creditor may report that the amount or the account is in dispute. Also, the creditor may report the account as delinquent if undisputed amounts remain unpaid.

2.  "Person."   During the error resolution period, the creditor is prohibited from making an adverse credit report about the disputed amount to any person--including employers, insurance companies, other creditors, and credit bureaus.

3.  Creditor's agent.  Whether an agency relationship exists between a creditor and an issuer of an adverse credit report is determined by state or other applicable law.

13(e)  Procedures if billing error occurred as asserted.

1.  Correction of error.  The phrase "as applicable" means that the necessary corrections vary with the type of billing error that occurred. For example, a misidentified transaction (or a transaction that is identified by one of the alternative methods in § 226.8) is cured by properly identifying the transaction and crediting related finance and any other charges imposed. The creditor is not required to cancel the amount of the underlying obligation incurred by the consumer.

2.  Form of correction notice.  The written correction notice may take a variety of forms. It may be sent separately, or it may be included on or with a periodic statement that is mailed within the time for resolution. If the periodic statement is used, the amount of the billing error must be specifically identified.

If a separate billing error correction notice is provided, the accompanying or subsequent periodic statement reflecting the corrected amount may simply identify it as "credit."

13(f)  Procedures if different billing error or no billing error occurred.

1.  Different billing error.  Examples of a "different billing error" include:

•  Differences in the amount of an error (for example, the customer asserts a $55.00 error but the error was only $53.00).

•  Differences in other particulars asserted by the consumer (such as when a consumer asserts that a particular transaction never occurred, but the creditor determines that only the seller's name was disclosed incorrectly).

2.  Form of creditor's explanation.  The written explanation (which also may notify the consumer of corrections to the account) may take a variety of forms. It may be sent separately, or it may be included on or with a periodic statement that is mailed within the time for resolution. If the creditor uses the periodic statement for the explanation and correction(s), the corrections must be specifically identified. If a separate explanation, including the correction notice, is provided, the enclosed or subsequent periodic statement reflecting the corrected amount may simply identify it as a "credit." The explanation may be combined with the creditor's notice to the consumer of amounts still owing, which is required under § 226.13(g)(1), provided it is sent within the time limit for resolution. (See commentary to § 226.13(e).)

13(g)  Creditor's rights and duties after resolution.

Paragraph 13(g)(1).

1.  Amounts owed by consumer.  Amounts the consumer still owes may include both minimum periodic payments and related finance and other charges that accrued during the resolution period. As explained in the commentary to § 226.13(d)(1), even if the creditor later determines that no billing error occurred, the creditor may not include finance or other charges that are imposed on undisputed balances solely as a result of a consumer's withholding payment of a disputed amount.

2.  Time of notice.  The creditor need not send the notice of amount owed within the time period for resolution, although it is under a duty to send the notice promptly after resolution of the alleged error. If the creditor combines the notice of the amount owed with the explanation required under § 226.13(f)(1), the combined notice must be provided within the time limit for resolution.

Paragraph 13(g)(2).

1.  The creditor need not allow any free-ride period disclosed under §§ 226.6(a)(1) and 226.7(j) to pay the amount due under § 226.13(g)(1) if no error occurred and the consumer was not entitled to a free-ride period at the time the consumer asserted the error.

Paragraph 13(g)(3).

1.  Time for payment.  The consumer has a minimum of 10 days to pay (measured from the time the consumer could reasonably be expected to have received notice of the amount owed) before the creditor may issue an adverse credit report; if an initially disclosed free-ride period allows the consumer a longer time in which to pay, the consumer has the benefit of that longer period.

Paragraph 13(g)(4).

1.  Credit reporting.  Under § 226.13(g)(4)(i) and (iii) the creditor's additional credit reporting responsibilities must be accomplished promptly. The creditor need not establish costly procedures to fulfill this requirement. For example, a creditor that reports to a credit bureau on scheduled updates need not transmit corrective information by an unscheduled computer or magnetic tape; it may provide the credit bureau with the correct information by letter or other commercially reasonable means when using the scheduled update would not be "prompt." The creditor is not responsible for ensuring that the credit bureau corrects its information immediately.

2.  Adverse report to credit bureau.  If a creditor made an adverse report to a credit bureau that disseminated the information to other creditors, the creditor fulfills its § 226.13(g)(4)(ii) obligations by providing the consumer with the name and address of the credit bureau.

13(i)  Relation to Electronic Fund Transfer Act and Regulation E.

1.  Coverage.  Credit extended directly from a nonoverdraft credit line is governed solely by Regulation Z, even though a combined credit card/access device is used to obtain the extension.

2.  Incidental credit under agreement.  Credit extended incident to an electronic fund transfer under an agreement between the consumer and the financial institution is governed by § 226.13(i), which provides that certain error resolution procedures in both this regulation and Regulation E apply. Incidental credit that is not extended under an agreement between the consumer and the financial institution is governed solely by the error resolution procedures in Regulation E. For example:

•  Credit inadvertently extended incident to an electronic fund transfer is governed solely by the Regulation E error resolution procedures, if the bank and the consumer do not have an agreement to extend credit when the consumer's account is overdrawn.

3.  Application to debit/credit transactions--examples.  If a consumer withdraws money at an automated teller machine and activates an overdraft credit feature on the checking account:

i.  An error asserted with respect to the transaction is subject, for error resolution purposes, to the applicable Regulation E provisions (such as timing and notice) for the entire transaction.

ii.  The creditor need not provisionally credit the consumer's account, under § 205.11(c)(2)(i) of Regulation E, for any portion of the unpaid extension of credit.

iii.  The creditor must credit the consumer's account under § 205.11(c) with any finance or other charges incurred as a result of the alleged error.

iv.  The provisions of § 226.13(d) and (g) apply only to the credit portion of the transaction.


Statute:  Sections 161 and 162.

Other sections:  §§ 226.6 through 226.8.

Other regulations:  Regulation E (12 CFR 205).

Previous regulation:  §§ 226.2(j) and (cc), and 226.14.

1981 changes:  Section 226.13 reflects several substantive changes from the previous regulation and a complete restructuring of the error resolution provisions. The new organization, for example, arranges the creditor's responsibilities in chronological sequence.

Section 226.13(a)(7) implements amended § 161(b) of the act, and provides that the creditor's failure to send a periodic statement to the consumer's current address is a billing error, unless the creditor received written notice of the address change fewer than 20 days (instead of 10 days) before the end of the billing cycle.

Several provisions regarding the creditor's duties after a billing error is alleged have been revised. The previous regulation immunized a creditor from liability for inadvertently taking collection action or making an adverse credit report within two days after receiving a billing error notice; these provisions are deleted from the revised regulation. The revised regulation no longer requires placement " on the face" of the periodic statement of the disclosure about payment of disputed amounts.

The revised regulation changes the rule in the previous regulation that a card issuer must prevent or restore an automatic debit of a disputed amount if it receives a billing error notice within 16 days after transmitting the periodic statement that reflects the alleged error. Under the revised regulation, the card issuer must prevent an automatic debit if it receives a billing error notice up to three days before the scheduled payment date (provided that the notice is received within the 60 days for the consumer to assert the error).

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Last updated December 3, 2009

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