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2009 FDIC National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households

Last Updated: October 25, 2022

The first household survey was conducted in January 2009, and the results were released to the public in December 2009. According to revised data, an estimated 7.6 percent of U.S. households, approximately 9 million, were unbanked at the time—with at least 17 million adults residing in these unbanked households.

2009 Survey Results

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About the 2009 FDIC National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households

FDIC conducted the inaugural National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households to address a gap in reliable data on the number of unbanked and underbanked households in the United States, and as part of its efforts to comply with a statutory mandate. The household survey complements the FDIC Survey on Banks' Efforts to Serve the Unbanked and Underbanked, published in February 2009, and provides significant new insights into the size of the unbanked and underbanked markets at the national, state, and large metropolitan statistical area (MSA) levels. It serves to inform policymakers, industry, and other stakeholders about economic inclusion issues, and to promote the goal of ensuring that all Americans have access to basic, safe, and affordable bank services.


The data for this report were collected through a January 2009 FDIC-sponsored Unbanked/Underbanked Supplement to the U.S. Census Bureau's monthly Current Population Survey (CPS). The FDIC sponsored this special supplement to collect national, state, and metropolitan statistical area (MSA) data on the number of U.S. households that are unbanked and underbanked, their demographic characteristics, and their reasons for being unbanked and underbanked. The Census Bureau surveyed approximately 54,000 households, and about 47,000 (86 percent) participated in the FDIC's supplement survey. Data were revised in September 2012. See 2011 Report and Technical Notes for details.