Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Office of Thrift Supervision
Interagency Statement on the Purchase and Risk Management of Life Insurance
Cash Surrender Value (CSV) - The value available to the policyholder if the policy is surrendered. If no loans are outstanding, this amount is generally available in cash. If loans have been made, the amount available upon surrender is equal to the cash surrender value less the outstanding loan (including accrued interest).
Deferred Acquisition Costs (DAC) - DAC represents the insurance carrier's up front costs associated with issuing an insurance policy, including taxes and commissions and fees paid to agents for selling the policy. The carrier charges the policyholder for these costs. Carriers capitalize DAC and recover them in accordance with applicable tax law. As the carrier recovers DAC, it credits the amount to the policyholder.
Experience-Rated Pricing - A pricing method that bases prices for insurance products on the actual expenses and claims experience for the pool of individuals being insured.
General Account - A design feature that is generally available to purchasers of whole or universal life insurance whereby the general assets of the insurance company support the policy's CSV.
Interest-Crediting Rate - The gross yield on the investment in the insurance policy, that is, the rate at which the cash value increases before considering any deductions for mortality cost, load charges, or other costs that are periodically charged against the policy's cash value.
There are a number of crediting rates, including "new money" and "portfolio." Using the "portfolio" crediting rate, the institution will earn a return based upon the existing yield of the insurance carrier's portfolio each year. Using the "new money" crediting rate, the institution will earn a return based upon yields available in the market at the time it purchases the policy.
Modified Endowment Contract (MEC) - Type of policy that is defined in Internal Revenue Code Section 7702A. A MEC generally involves the payment of a single premium at the inception of the contract; thus, it fails the so-called seven-pay test set forth in the statute. MECs are denied some of the favorable tax treatment usually accorded to life insurance. For example, most distributions, including loans, are treated as taxable income. An additional 10 percent penalty tax also is imposed on distributions in some circumstances. However, death benefits remain tax-free.
Mortality Charge - The pure cost of the life insurance death benefit within a policy. It represents a cost to the purchaser and an income item to the carrier. Mortality charges retained by the insurance carrier are used to pay claims.
Mortality Reserve - In separate account products, the mortality reserve represents funds held by an insurance carrier outside of the separate account to provide for the payment of death benefits.
Non-MEC - An insurance contract that is not categorized as a MEC under Internal Revenue Code Section 7702A.
Separate Account - A separate account is a design feature that is generally available to purchasers of whole life or universal life whereby the policyholder's CSV is supported by assets segregated from the general assets of the carrier. Under such an arrangement, the policyholder neither owns the underlying separate account nor controls investment decisions (e.g., timing of investments or credit selection) in the underlying separate account that is created by the insurance carrier on its behalf. Nevertheless, the policyholder assumes all investment and price risk.
Seven-Pay Test - The seven-pay test is a test set forth in Internal Revenue Code Section 7702A that determines whether or not a life insurance product is a MEC for federal tax purposes.
Split-Dollar Life Insurance - A split-dollar life insurance arrangement splits the policy's premium and policy benefits between two parties, usually an employer and employee. The two parties may share the premium costs while the policy is in effect, pursuant to a prearranged contractual agreement. At the death of the insured or the termination of the agreement, the parties split the policy benefits or proceeds in accordance with their agreement.
Stable Value Protection (SVP) Contracts - In general, an SVP contract pays the policy owner of a separate account any shortfall between the fair value of the separate account assets when the policy owner surrenders the policy and the cost basis of the separate account to the policy owner. The cost basis of the separate account typically would take into account the fair value of the assets in the account when the policy was initially purchased, the initial fair value of assets added to the account thereafter, interest credited to the account, the amount of certain redemptions and withdrawals from the account, and credit losses incurred on separate account assets. Thus, SVP contracts mitigate price risk. SVP contracts are most often used in connection with fixed-income investments.
1035 Exchange - A tax-free replacement of an insurance policy for another contract covering the same person(s) in accordance with Section 1035 of the Internal Revenue Code.
Variable Life Insurance -Variable life insurance policies are investment-oriented life insurance policies that provide a return linked to an underlying portfolio of securities. The portfolio typically is a group of mutual funds chosen by the insurer and housed in a separate account, with the policyholder given some discretion in choosing among the available investment options.