6500 - Consumer Protection
PART 213CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M)
Authority, scope, purpose, and enforcement.
§ 213.1 Authority, scope, purpose, and enforcement.
(a) Authority. The regulation in this part, known as Regulation M, is issued by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to implement the consumer leasing provisions of the Truth in Lending Act, which is Title I of the Consumer Credit Protection Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.). Information collection requirements contained in this regulation have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under the provisions of 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and have been assigned OMB control number 7100--0202.
(b) Scope and purpose. This part applies to all persons that are lessors of personal property under consumer leases as those terms are defined in § 213.2(e)(1) and (h). The purpose of this part is:
(1) To ensure that lessees of personal property receive meaningful disclosures that enable them to compare lease terms with other leases and, where appropriate, with credit transactions;
(2) To limit the amount of balloon payments in consumer lease transactions; and
(3) To provide for the accurate disclosure of lease terms in advertising.
(c) Enforcement and liability. Section 108 of the act contains the administrative enforcement provisions. Sections 112, 130, 131, and 185 of the act contain the liability provisions for failing to comply with the requirements of the act and this part.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 213.1]
[Section 213.1 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 52258, October 7, 1996, effective October 31, 1996; 62 Fed. Reg. 15367, April 1, 1997, effective April 1, 1997 but is compliance is optional until October 1, 1997]
§ 213.2 Definitions.
For the purposes of this part the following definitions apply:
(a) Act means the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) and the Consumer Leasing Act is chapter 5 of the Truth in Lending Act.
(b) Advertisement means a commercial message in any medium that directly or indirectly promotes a consumer lease transaction.
(c) Board refers to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
(e)(1) Consumer lease means a contract in the form of a bailment or lease for the use of personal property by a natural person primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, for a period exceeding four months and for a total contractual obligation not exceeding the applicable threshold amount, whether or not the lessee has the option to purchase or otherwise become the owner of the property at the expiration of the lease. Unless the context indicates otherwise, in this part "lease" means "consumer lease."
(2) The term does not include a lease that meets the definition of a credit sale in Regulation Z (12 CFR 226.2(a)). It also does not include a lease for agricultural, business, or commercial purposes or a lease made to an organization.
(3) This part does not apply to a lease transaction of personal property which is incident to the lease of real property and which provides that:
(i) The lessee has no liability for the value of the personal property at the end of the lease term except for abnormal wear and tear; and
(ii) The lessee has no option to purchase the leased property.
(f) Gross capitalized cost means the amount agreed upon by the lessor and the lessee as the value of the leased property and any items that are capitalized or amortized during the lease term, including but not limited to taxes, insurance, service agreements, and any outstanding prior credit or lease balance. Capitalized cost reduction means the total amount of any rebate, cash payment, net trade-in allowance, and noncash credit that reduces the gross capitalized cost. The adjusted capitalized cost equals the gross capitalized cost less the capitalized cost reduction, and is the amount used by the lessor in calculating the base periodic payment.
(g) Lessee means a natural person who enters into or is offered a consumer lease.
(h) Lessor means a person who regularly leases, offers to lease, or arranges for the lease of personal property under a consumer lease. A person who has leased, offered, or arranged to lease personal property more than five times in the preceding calendar year or more than five times in the current calendar year is subject to the act and this part.
(i) Open-end lease means a consumer lease in which the lessee's liability at the end of the lease term is based on the difference between the residual value of the leased property and its realized value.
(j) Organization means a corporation, trust, estate, partnership, cooperative, association, or government entity or instrumentality.
(k) Person means a natural person or an organization.
(l) Personal property means any property that is not real property under the law of the state where the property is located at the time it is offered or made available for lease.
(m) Realized value means:
(1) The price received by the lessor for the lease property at disposition;
(2) The highest offer for disposition of the leased property; or
(3) The fair market value of the leased property at the end of the lease term.
(n) Residual value means the value of the leased property at the end of the lease term, as estimated or assigned at consummation by the lessor, used in calculating the base periodic payment.
(o) Security interest and security mean any interest in property that secures the payment or performance of an obligation.
(p) State means any state, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 213.2]
[Section 213.2 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 52258, October 7, 1996, effective October 31, 1996; 62 Fed. Reg. 15367, April 1, 1997, effective April 1, 1997, but compliance is optional until October 1, 1997; 76 Fed. Reg. 18353, April 4, 2011, effective July 21, 2011]
§ 213.3 General disclosure requirements.
(a) General requirements. A lessor shall make the disclosures required by § 213.4, as applicable. The disclosures shall be made clearly and conspicuously in writing in a form the consumer may keep, in accordance with this section. The disclosures required by this part may be provided to the lessee in electronic form, subject to compliance with the consumer consent and other applicable provisions of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act) (15 U.S.C. § 7001 et seq.). For an advertisement accessed by the consumer in electronic form, the disclosures required by § 213.7 may be provided to the consumer in electronic form in the advertisement, without regard to the consumer consent or other provisions of the E-Sign Act.
(1) Form of disclosures. The disclosures required by § 213.4 shall be given to the lessee together in a dated statement that identifies the lessor and the lessee; the disclosures may be made either in a separate statement that identifies the consumer lease transaction or in the contract or other document evidencing the lease. Alternatively, the disclosures required to be segregated from other information under paragraph (a)(2) of this section may be provided in a separate dated statement that identifies the lease, and the other required disclosures may be provided in the lease contract or other document evidencing the lease. In a lease of multiple items, the property description required by § 213.4(a) may be given in a separate statement that is incorporated by reference in the disclosure statement required by this paragraph.
(2) Segregation of certain disclosures. The following disclosures shall be segregated from other information and shall contain only directly related information: §§ 213.4(b) through (f), (g)(2), (h)(3), (i)(1), (j), and (m)(1). The headings, content, and format for the disclosures referred to in this paragraph (a)(2) shall be provided in a manner substantially similar to the applicable model form in appendix A of this part.
(3) Timing of disclosures. A lessor shall provide the disclosures to the lessee prior to the consummation of a consumer lease.
(4) Language of disclosures. The disclosures required by § 213.4 may be made in a language other than English provided that they are made available in English upon the lessee's request.
(5) Electronic communication. For rules governing the electronic delivery of disclosures, including a definition of electronic communication, see § 213.6.
(b) Additional information; nonsegregated disclosures. Additional information may be provided with any disclosure not listed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, but it shall not be stated, used, or placed so as to mislead or confuse the lessee or contradict, obscure, or detract attention from any disclosure required by this part.
(c) Multiple lessors or lessees. When a transaction involves more than one lessor, the disclosures required by this part may be made by one lessor on behalf of all the lessors. When a lease involves more than one lessee, the lessor may provide the disclosures to any lessee who is primarily liable on the lease.
(d) Use of estimates. If an amount or other item needed to comply with a required disclosure is unknown or unavailable after reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain the information, the lessor may use a reasonable estimate that is based on the best information available to the lessor, is clearly identified as an estimate, and is not used to circumvent or evade any disclosures required by this part.
(e) Effect of subsequent occurrence. If a required disclosure becomes inaccurate because of an event occurring after consummation, the inaccuracy is not a violation of this part.
(f) Minor variations. A lessor may disregard the effects of the following in making disclosures:
(1) That payments must be collected in whole cents;
(2) That dates of scheduled payments may be different because a scheduled date is not a business day;
(3) That months have different numbers of days; and
(4) That February 29 occurs in a leap year.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 213.3]
[Section 213.3 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 52259, October 7, 1996, effective October 31, 1996; 66 Fed. Reg. 17328, March 30, 2001, effective March 30, 2001; 72 Fed. Reg. 63461 November 9, 2007, effective December 10, 2007, the mandatory compliance date is October 1, 2008]
§ 213.4 Content of disclosures.
For any consumer lease subject to this part, the lessor shall disclose the following information, as applicable:
(b) Amount due at lease signing or delivery. The total amount to be paid prior to or at consummation by delivery, if delivery occurs after consummation, using the term "amount due at lease signing or delivery." The lessor shall itemize each component by type and amount, including any refundable security deposit, advance monthly or other periodic payment, and capitalized cost reduction; and in motor-vehicle leases, shall itemize how the amount due will be paid, by type and amount, including any net trade-in allowance, rebates, noncash credits, and cash payments in a format substantially similar to the model forms in appendix A of this part.
(c) Payment schedule and total amount of periodic payments. The number, amount, and due dates or periods of payments scheduled under the lease, and the total amount of the periodic payments.
(d) Other charges. The total amount of other charges payable to the lessor, itemized by type and amount, that are not included in the periodic payments. Such charges include the amount of any liability the lease imposes upon the lessee at the end of the lease term; the potential difference between the residual and realized values referred to in paragraph (k) of this section is excluded.
(e) Total of payments. The total of payments, with a description such as "the amount you will have paid by the end of the lease." This amount is the sum of the amount due at lease signing (less any refundable amounts), the total amount of periodic payments (less any portion of the periodic payment paid at lease signing), and other charges under paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. In an open-end lease, a description such as "you will owe an additional amount if the actual value of the vehicle is less than the residual value" shall accompany the disclosure.
(f) Payment calculation. In a motor-vehicle lease, a mathematical progression of how the scheduled periodic payment is derived, in a format substantially similar to the applicable model form in appendix A of this part, which shall contain the following:
(1) Gross capitalized cost. The gross capitalized cost, including a disclosure of the agreed upon value of the vehicle, a description such as "the agreed upon value of the vehicle [state the amount] and any items you pay for over the lease term (such as service contracts, insurance, and any outstanding prior credit or lease balance)," and a statement of the lessee's option to receive a separate written itemization of the gross capitalized cost. If requested by the lessee, the itemization shall be provided before consummation.
(2) Capitalized cost reduction. The capitalized cost reduction, with a description such as "the amount of any net trade-in allowance, rebate, noncash credit, or cash you pay that reduces the gross capitalized cost."
(3) Adjusted capitalized cost. The adjusted capitalized cost, with a description such as "the amount used in calculating your base [periodic] payment."
(4) Residual value. The residual value, with a description such as "the value of the vehicle at the end of the lease used in calculating your base [periodic] payment."
(5) Depreciation and any amortized amounts. The depreciation and any amortized amounts, which is the difference between the adjusted capitalized cost and the residual value, with a description such as "the amount charged for the vehicle's decline in value through normal use and for any other items paid over the lease term."
(6) Rent charge. The rent charge, with a description such as "the amount charged in addition to the depreciation and any amortized amounts." This amount is the difference between the total of the base periodic payments over the lease term minus the depreciation and any amortized amounts.
(7) Total of base periodic payments. The total of base periodic payments with a description such as "depreciation and any amortized amounts plus the rent charge."
(8) Lease payments. The lease payments with a description such as "the number of payments in your lease."
(9) Base periodic payment. The total of the base periodic payments divided by the number of payment periods in the lease.
(10) Itemization of other charges. An itemization of any other charges that are part of the periodic payment.
(g) Early termination--(1) Conditions and disclosure of charges. A statement of the conditions under which the lessee or lessor may terminate the lease prior to the end of the lease term; and the amount or a description of the method for determining the amount of any penalty or other charge for early termination, which must be reasonable.
(2) Early-termination notice. In a motor-vehicle lease, a notice substantially similar to the following: "Early Termination. You may have to pay a substantial charge if you end this lease early. The charge may be up to several thousand dollars. The actual charge will depend on when the lease is terminated. The earlier you end the lease, the greater this charge is likely to be."
(h) Maintenance responsibilities. The following provisions are required:
(1) Statement of responsibilities. A statement specifying whether the lessor or the lessee is responsible for maintaining or servicing the leased property, together with a brief description of the responsibility;
(2) Wear and use standard. A statement of the lessor's standards for wear and use (if any), which must be reasonable; and
(3) Notice of wear and use standard. In a motor-vehicle lease, a notice regarding wear and use substantially similar to the following: "Excessive Wear and Use. You may be charged for excessive wear based on our standards for normal use." The notice shall also specify the amount or method for determining any charge for excess mileage.
(i) Purchase option. A statement of whether or not the lessee has the option to purchase the leased property, and:
(1) End of lease term. If at the end of the lease term, the purchase price; and
(2) During lease term. If prior to the end of the lease term, the purchase price or the method for determining the price and when the lessee may exercise this option.
(j) Statement referencing nonsegregated disclosures. A statement that the lessee should refer to the lease documents for additional information on early termination, purchase options and maintenance responsibilities, warranties, late and default charges, insurance, and any security interests, if applicable.
(k) Liability between residual and realized values. A statement of the lessee's liability, if any, at early termination or at the end of the lease term for the difference between the residual value of the leased property and its realized value.
(l) Right of appraisal. If the lessee's liability at early termination or at the end of the lease term is based on the realized value of the leased property, a statement that the lessee may obtain, at the lessee's expense, a professional appraisal by an independent third party (agreed to by the lessee and the lessor) of the value that could be realized at sale of the leased property. The appraisal shall be final and binding on the parties.
(m) Liability at end of lease term based on residual value. If the lessee is liable at the end of the lease term for the difference between the residual value of the leased property and its realized value:
(1) Rent and other charges. The rent and other charges, paid by the lessee and required by the lessor as an incident to the lease transaction, with a description such as "the total amount of rent and other charges imposed in connection with your lease [state the amount]."
(2) Excess liability. A statement about a rebuttable presumption that, at the end of the lease term, the residual value of the leased property is unreasonable and not in good faith to the extent that the residual value exceeds the realized value by more than three times the base monthly payment (or more than three times the average payment allocable to a monthly period, if the lease calls for periodic payments other than monthly); and that the lessor cannot collect the excess amount unless the lessor brings a successful court action and pays the lessee's reasonable attorney's fees, or unless the excess of the residual value over the realized value is due to unreasonable or excessive wear or use of the leased property (in which case the rebuttable presumption does not apply).
(3) Mutually agreeable final adjustment. A statement that the lessee and lessor are permitted, after termination of the lease, to make any mutually agreeable final adjustment regarding excess liability.
(o) Insurance. A brief identification of insurance in connection with the lease including:
(1) Through the lessor. If the insurance is provided by or paid through the lessor, the types and amounts of coverage and the cost to the lessee; or
(2) Through a third party. If the lessee must obtain the insurance, the types and amounts of coverage required of the lessee.
(p) Warranties or guarantees. A statement identifying all express warranties and guarantees from the manufacturer or lessor with respect to the leased property that apply to the lessee.
(q) Penalties and other charges for delinquency. The amount or the method of determining the amount of any penalty or other charge for delinquency, default, or late payments, which must be reasonable.
(r) Security interest. A description of any security interest, other than a security deposit disclosed under paragraph (b) of this section, held or to be retained by the lessor; and a clear identification of the property to which the security interest relates.
(s) Limitations on rate information. If a lessor provides a percentage rate in an advertisement or in documents evidencing the lease transaction, a notice stating that "this percentage may not measure the overall cost of financing this lease" shall accompany the rate disclosure. The lessor shall not use the term "annual percentage rate," "annual lease rate," or any equivalent term.
(t) Non-motor vehicle open-end leases. Non-motor vehicle open-end leases remain subject to section 182(10) of the act regarding end of term liability.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 213.4]
[Section 213.4 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 52259, October 7, 1996, effective October 31, 1996; 62 Fed. Reg. 15367, April 1, 1997, effective April 1, 1997, but compliance is optional until October 1, 1997; 63 Fed. Reg. 52109, September 29, 1998, effective September 24, 1998]
§ 213.5 Renegotiations, extensions, and assumptions.
(a) Renegotiation. A renegotiation occurs when a consumer lease subject to this part is satisfied and replaced by a new lease undertaken by the same consumer. A renegotiation requires new disclosures, except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section.
(b) Extension. An extension is a continuation, agreed to by the lessor and the lessee, of an existing consumer lease beyond the originally scheduled end of the lease term, except when the continuation is the result of a renegotiation. An extension that exceeds six months requires new disclosures, except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section.
(c) Assumption. New disclosures are not required when a consumer lease is assumed by another person, whether or not the lessor charges an assumption fee.
(d) Exceptions. New disclosures are not required for the following, even if they meet the definition of a renegotiation or an extension:
(1) A reduction in the rent charge;
(2) The deferment of one or more payments, whether or not a fee is charged;
(3) The extension of a lease for not more than six months on a month-to-month basis or otherwise;
(4) A substitution of leased property with property that has a substantially equivalent or greater economic value, provided no other lease terms are changed;
(5) The addition, deletion, or substitution of leased property in a multiple-item lease, provided the average periodic payment does not change by more than 25 percent; or
(6) An agreement resulting from a court proceeding.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 213.5]
[Section 213.5 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 52260, October 7, 1996, effective October 31, 1996; 62 Fed. Reg. 15367, April 1, 1997, effective April 1, 1997, but compliance is optional until October 1, 1997]
§ 213.7 Advertising.
(a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a specific lease of property at specific amounts or terms is available only if the lessor usually and customarily leases or will lease the property at those amounts or terms.
(b) Clear and conspicuous standard. Disclosures required by this section shall be made clearly and conspicuously.
(1) Amount due at lease signing or delivery. Except for the statement of a periodic payment, any affirmative or negative reference to a charge that is a part of the disclosure required under paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section shall not be more prominent than that disclosure.
(2) Advertisement of a lease rate. If a lessor provides a percentage rate in an advertisement, the rate shall not be more prominent than any of the disclosures in § 213.4, with the exception of notice in § 213.4(s) required to accompany the rate; and the lessor shall not use the term ""annual percentage rate," "annual lease rate," or equivalent term.
(c) Catalogs or other multipage advertisements; electronic advertisements. A catalog or other multipage advertisement, or an electronic advertisement (such as an advertisement appearing on an Internet Web site), that provides a table or schedule of the required disclosures shall be considered a single advertisement if, for lease terms that appear without all the required disclosures, the advertisement refers to the page or pages on which the table or schedule appears.
(d) Advertisement of terms that require additional disclosure--(1) Triggering terms. An advertisement that states any of the following items shall contain the disclosures required by paragraph (d)(2) of this section, except as provided in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section;
(i) The amount of any payment; or
(ii) A statement of any capitalized cost reduction or other payment (or that no payment is required) prior to or at consummation or by delivery, if delivery occurs after consummation.
(2) Additional terms. An advertisement stating any item listed in paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall also state the following items:
(i) That the transaction advertised is a lease;
(ii) The total amount due prior to or at consummation or by delivery, if delivery occurs after consummation;
(iii) The number, amounts, and due dates or periods of scheduled payments under the lease;
(iv) A statement of whether or not a security deposit is required; and
(v) A statement that an extra charge may be imposed at the end of the lease term where the lessee's liability (if any) is based on the difference between the residual value of the leased property and its realized value at the end of the lease term.
(e) Alternative disclosures--merchandise tags. A merchandise tag stating any item listed in paragraph (d)(1) of this section may comply with paragraph (d)(2) of this section by referring to a sign or display prominently posted in the lessor's place of business that contains a table or schedule of the required disclosures.
(f) Alternative disclosures--television or radio advertisements--(1) Toll-free number or print advertisement. An advertisement made through television or radio stating any item listed in paragraph (d)(1) of this section complies with paragraph (d)(2) of this section if the advertisement states the items listed in paragraphs (d)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section, and:
(i) Lists a toll-free telephone number along with a reference that such number may be used by consumers to obtain the information required by paragraph (d)(2) of this section; or
(ii) Directs the consumer to a written advertisement in a publication of general circulation in the community served by the media station, including the name and the date of the publication, with a statement that information required by paragraph (d)(2) of this section is included in the advertisement. The written advertisement shall be published beginning at least three days before and ending at least ten days after the broadcast.
(2) Establishment of toll-free number. (i) The toll-free telephone number shall be available for no fewer than ten days, beginning on the date of the broadcast.
(ii) The lessor shall provide the information required by paragraph (d)(2) of this section orally, or in writing upon request.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 213.7]
[Section 213.7 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 52261, October 7, 1996, effective October 31, 1996; 62 Fed. Reg. 15367, April 1, 1997, effective April 1, 1997, but compliance is optional until October 1, 1997; 63 Fed. Reg. 52109, September 29, 1998, effective September 24, 1998; 72 Fed. Reg. 63461 November 9, 2007, effective December 10, 2007, the mandatory compliance date is October 1, 2008]
§ 213.8 Record retention.
A lessor shall retain evidence of compliance with the requirements imposed by this part, other than the advertising requirements under § 213.7, for a period of not less than two years after the date the disclosures are required to be made or an action is required to be taken.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 213.8]
[Section 213.8 amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 52261, October 7, 1996, effective October 31, 1996; 72 Fed. Reg. 63461 November 9, 2007, effective December 10, 2007, the mandatory compliance date is October 1, 2008]
§ 213.9 Relation to state laws.
(a) Inconsistent state law. A state law that is inconsistent with the requirements of the act and this part is preempted to the extent of the inconsistency. If a lessor cannot comply with a state law without violating a provision of this part, the state law is inconsistent within the meaning of section 186(a) of the act and is preempted, unless the state law gives greater protection and benefit to the consumer. A state, through an official having primary enforcement or interpretative responsibilities for the state consumer leasing law, may apply to the Board for a preemption determination.
(b) Exemptions.--(1) Application. A state may apply to the Board for an exemption from the requirements of the act and this part for any class of lease transactions within the state. The Board will grant such an exemption if the Board determines that:
(i) The class of leasing transactions is subject to state law requirements substantially similar to the act and this part or that lessees are afforded greater protection under state law; and
(ii) There is adequate provision for state enforcement.
(2) Enforcement and liability. After an exemption has been granted, the requirements of the applicable state law (except for additional requirements not imposed by federal law) will constitute the requirements of the act and this part. No exemption will extend to the civil liability provisions of sections 130, 131, and 185 of the act.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 213.9]
[Section 213.9 added at 61 Fed. Reg. 52261, October 7, 1996, effective October 31, 1996]
Appendix A to Part 213Model
Appendix A-2 Model Closed-End or Finance Vehicle Lease Disclosures
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. Part 213, Appendix A]
[Appendix A amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 52263, October 7, 1996, effective October 31, 1996; 62 Fed. Reg. 15369, April 1, 1997, effective April 1, 1997, but compliance is optional until October 1, 1997; 63 Fed. Reg. 52109, September 29, 1998, effective September 24, 1998]
Appendix B to Part 213--Federal Enforcement Agencies
The following list indicates which federal agency enforces Regulation M (12 CFR Part 213) for particular classes of business. Any questions concerning compliance by a particular business should be directed to the appropriate enforcement agency. Terms that are not defined in the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(s)) shall have the meaning given to them in the International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3101).
1. National banks and federal branches and federal agencies of foreign banks
District office of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency for the district in which the institution is located.
2. State member banks, branches and agencies of foreign banks (other than federal branches, federal agencies, and insured state branches of foreign banks), commercial lending companies owned or controlled by foreign banks, and organizations operating under section 25 or 25A of the Federal Reserves Act
Federal Reserve Bank serving the District in which the institution is located.
3. Nonmember insured banks and insured state branches of foreign banks
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Regional Director for the region in which the institution is located.
4. Savings institutions insured under the Savings Association Insurance Fund of the FDIC and federally chartered savings banks insured under the Bank Insurance Fund of the FDIC (but not including state-chartered savings banks insured under the Bank Insurance Fund)
Office of Thrift Supervision regional director for the region in which the institution is located.
5. Federal credit unions
Regional office of the National Credit Union Administration serving the area in which the federal credit union is located.
6. Air carriers
Assistant General Counsel for Aviation Enforcement and Proceedings, Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20590.
7. Those subject to Packers and Stockyards Act
Nearest Packers and Stockyards Administration area supervisor.
8. Federal Land Banks, Federal Land Bank Associations, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, and Production Credit Associations
Farm Credit Administration, 490 L'Enfant Plaza, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20578
9. All other lessors (lessors operating on a local or regional basis should use the address of the FTC regional office in which they operate
Division of Credit Practices, Bureau of Consumer Protection, Federal Trade Commission, Washington, D.C. 20580.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. Part 213, Appendix B]
Appendix C to Part 213--Issuance of Staff Interpretations
Officials in the Board's Division of Consumer and Community Affairs are authorized to issue official staff interpretations of this Regulation M (12 CFR Part 213). These interpretations provide the formal protection afforded under section 130(f) of the act. Except in unusual circumstances, interpretations will not be issued separately but will be incorporated in an official commentary to Regulation M (Supplement I of this part), which will be amended periodically. No staff interpretations will be issued approving lessor's forms, statements, or calculation tools or methods.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. Part 213, Appendix C]
[Appendix C amended at 61 Fed. Reg. 52269, October 7, 1996, effective October 31, 1996]
SUPPLEMENT I TO PART 213OFFICIAL STAFF COMMENTARY TO REGULATION M
CODIFICATION: Official Staff Commentary to Regulation M codified to 12 C.F.R. Part 213.
AUTHORITY: 15 U.S.C. 1604; 1667f.
SOURCE: The provisions of this Part 213 appear at 47 Fed. Reg. 20554, May 13, 1982, effective May 12, 1982; 62 Fed. Reg. 16058, April 4, 1997; effective April 1, 1997 but compliance is optional until October 1, 1997; 72 Fed. Reg. 63461 and 63462, November 9, 2007, effective December 10, 2007, the mandatory compliance date is October 1, 2008; 76 Fed. Reg. 18353, April 4, 2011, effective July 21, 2011.
1. Official status. The commentary in Supplement I is the vehicle by which the Division of Consumer and Community Affairs of the Federal Reserve Board issues official staff interpretations of Regulation M (12 CFR part 213). Good faith compliance with this commentary affords protection from liability under section 130(f) of the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1640(f)). Section 130(f) protects lessors from civil liability for any act done or omitted in good faith in conformity with any interpretation issued by a duly authorized official or employee of the Federal Reserve System.
2. Procedures for requesting interpretations. Under appendix C of Regulation M, anyone may request an official staff interpretation. Interpretations that are adopted will be incorporated in this commentary following publication in the Federal Register. No official staff interpretations are expected to be issued other than by means of this commentary.
3. Comment designations. Each comment in the commentary is identified by a number and the regulatory section or paragraph that it interprets. The comments are designated with as much specificity as possible according to the particular regulatory provision addressed. For example, some of the comments to § 213.4(f) are further divided by subparagraph, such as comment 4(f)(1)-1 and comment 4(f)(2)-2. In other cases, comments have more general application and are designated, for example, as comment 4(a)-1. This introduction may be cited as comments I-1 through I-4. An appendix may be cited as comment app. A-1.
4. Illustrations. Lists that appear in the commentary may be exhaustive or illustrative; the appropriate construction should be clear from the context. Illustrative lists are introduced by phrases such as "including," "such as," "to illustrate," and "for example."
Section 213.1--Authority, Scope, Purpose, and Enforcement
1. Foreign applicability. Regulation M applies to all persons (including branches of foreign banks or leasing companies located in the United States) that offer consumer leases to residents of any state (including foreign nationals) as defined in § 213.2(p). The regulation does not apply to a foreign branch of a U.S. bank or to a leasing company leasing to a U.S. citizen residing or visiting abroad or to a foreign national abroad.
1. Coverage. The term advertisement includes messages inviting, offering, or otherwise generally announcing to prospective customers the availability of consumer leases, whether in visual, oral, print or electronic media. Examples include:
i. Messages in newspapers, magazines, leaflets, catalogs, and fliers.
ii. Messages on radio, television, and public address systems.
iii. Direct mail literature.
iv. Printed material on any interior or exterior sign or display, in any window display, in any point-of-transaction literature or price tag that is delivered or made available to a lessee or prospective lessee in any manner whatsoever.
v. Telephone solicitations.
2. Exclusions. The term does not apply to the following:
i. Direct personal contacts, including follow-up letters, cost estimates for individual lessees, or oral or written communications relating to the negotiation of a specific transaction.
ii. Informational material distributed only to businesses.
iii. Notices required by federal or state law, if the law mandates that specific information be displayed and only the mandated information is included in the notice.
iv. News articles controlled by the news medium.
v. Market research or educational materials that do not solicit business.
3. Persons covered. See the commentary to § 213.7(a).
2(d) Closed-End Lease
1. General. In closed-end leases, sometimes referred to as "walk-away" leases, the lessee is not responsible for the residual value of the leased property at the end of the lease term.
2(e) Consumer Lease
1. Primary purposes. A lessor must determine in each case if the leased property will be used primarily for personal, family, or household purposes. If a question exists as to the primary purpose for a lease, the fact that a lessor gives disclosures is not controlling on the question of whether the transaction is covered. The primary purpose of a lease is determined before or at consummation and a lessor need not provide Regulation M disclosures where there is a subsequent change in the primary use.
2. Period of time. To be a consumer lease, the initial term of the lease must be more than four months. Thus, a lease of personal property for four months, three months or on a month-to-month or week-to-week basis (even though the lease actually extends beyond four months) is not a consumer lease and is not subject to the disclosure requirements of the regulation. However, a lease that imposes a penalty for not continuing the lease beyond four months is considered to have a term of more than four months. To illustrate:
i. A three-month lease extended on a month-to-month basis and terminated after one year is not subject to the regulation.
ii. A month-to-month lease with a penalty, such as the forfeiture of a security deposit for terminating before one year, is subject to the regulation.
3. Total contractual obligation. The total contractual obligation is not necessarily the same as the total of payments disclosed under § 213.4(e). The total contractual obligation includes nonrefundable amounts a lessee is contractually obligated to pay to the lessor, but excludes items such as:
i. Residual value amounts or purchase-option prices;
ii. Amounts collected by the lessor but paid to a third party, such as taxes, licenses, and registration fees.
4. Credit sale. The regulation does not cover a lease that meets the definition of a credit sale in Regulation Z, 12 CFR 226.1(a)(16), which is defined, in part, as a bailment or lease (unless terminable without penalty at any time by the consumer) under which the consumer:
i. Agrees to pay as compensation for use a sum substantially equivalent to, or in excess of, the total value of the property and services involved; and
ii. Will become (or has the option to become), for no additional consideration or for nominal consideration, the owner of the property upon compliance with the agreement.
5. Agricultural purpose. Agricultural purpose means a purpose related to the production, harvest, exhibition, marketing, transportation, processing, or manufacture of agricultural products by a natural person who cultivates, plants, propagates, or nurtures those agricultural products, including but not limited to the acquisition of personal property and services used primarily in farming. Agricultural products include horticultural, viticultural, and dairy products, livestock, wildlife, poultry, bees, forest products, fish and shellfish, and any products thereof, including processed and manufactured products, and any and all products raised or produced on farms and any processed or manufactured products thereof.
6. Organization or other entity. A consumer lease does not include a lease made to an organization such as a corporation or a government agency or instrumentality. Such a lease is not covered by the regulation even if the leased property is used (by an employee, for example) primarily for personal, family or household purposes, or is guaranteed by or subsequently assigned to a natural person.
7. Leases of personal property incidental to a service. The following leases of personal property are deemed incidental to a service and thus are not subject to the regulation:
i. Home entertainment systems requiring the consumer to lease equipment that enables a television to receive the transmitted programming.
ii. Security alarm systems requiring the installation of leased equipment intended to monitor unlawful entries into a home and in some cases to provide fire protection.
iii. Propane gas service where the consumer must lease a propane tank to receive the service.
8. Safe deposit boxes. The lease of a safe deposit box is not a consumer lease under § 213.2(e).
9. Threshold amount. A consumer lease is exempt from the requirements of this Part if the total contractual obligation exceeds the threshold amount in effect at the time of consummation. The threshold amount in effect during a particular time period is the amount stated below for that period. The threshold amount is adjusted effective January 1 of each year by any annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI--W) that was in effect on the preceding June 1. This comment will be amended to provide the threshold amount for the upcoming year after the annual percentage change in the CPI--W that was in effect on June 1 becomes available. Any increase in the threshold amount will be rounded to the nearest $100 increment. For example, if the annual percentage increase in the CPI--W would result in a $950 increase in the threshold amount, the threshold amount will be increased by $1,000. However, if the annual percentage increase in the CPI--W would result in a $949 increase in the threshold amount, the threshold amount will be increased by $900. If a consumer lease is exempt from the requirements of this Part because the total contractual obligation exceeds the threshold amount in effect at the time of consummation, the lease remains exempt regardless of a subsequent increase in the threshold amount.
i. Prior to July 21, 2011, the threshold amount is $25,000.
ii. From July 21, 2011, through December 31, 2011, the threshold amount is $50,000.
1. Guarantors. Guarantors are not lessees for purposes of the regulation.
1. Arranger of a lease. To "arrange" for the lease of personal property means to provide or offer to provide a lease that is or will be extended by another person under a business or other relationship pursuant to which the person arranging the lease (a) receives or will receive a fee, compensation, or other consideration for the service or (b) has knowledge of the lease terms and participates in the preparation of the contract documents required in connection with the lease. To illustrate:
i. An automobile dealer who, pursuant to a business relationship, completes the necessary lease agreement before forwarding it for execution to the leasing company (to whom the obligation is payable on its face) is "arranging" for the lease.
2. Consideration. The term "other consideration" as used in comment 2(h)-1 refers to an actual payment corresponding to a fee or similar compensation and not to intangible benefits, such as the advantage of increased business, which may flow from the relationship between the parties.
3. Assignees. An assignee may be a lessor for purposes of the regulation in circumstances where the assignee has substantial involvement in the lease transaction. See cf. Ford Motor Credit Co. v. Cenance, 452 U.S. 155 (1981) (held that an assignee was a creditor for purposes of the pre-1980 Truth in Lending Act and Regulation Z because of its substantial involvement in the credit transaction).
4. Multiple lessors. See the commentary to § 213.3(c).
1. Coverage. The term "organization" includes joint ventures and persons operating under a business name.
2(l) Personal Property
1. Coverage. Whether property is personal property depends on state or other applicable law. For example, a mobile home or houseboat may be considered personal property in one state but real property in another.
2(m) Realized Value
1. General. Realized value refers to either the retail or wholesale value of the leased property at early termination or at the end of the lease term. It is not a required disclosure. Realized value is relevant only to leases in which the lessee's liability at early termination or at the end of the lease term typically is based on the difference between the residual value (or the adjusted lease balance) of the leased property and its realized value.
2. Options. Subject to the contract and to state or other applicable law, the lessor may calculate the realized value in determining the lessee's liability at the end of the lease term or at early termination in one of the three ways stated in § 213.2(m). If the lessor sells the property prior to making the determination about liability, the price received for the property (or the fair market value) is the realized value. If the lessor does not sell the property prior to making that determination, the highest offer or the fair market value is the realized value.
3. Determination of realized value. Disposition charges are not subtracted in determining the realized value but amounts attributable to taxes may be subtracted.
4. Offers. In determining the highest offer for disposition, the lessor may disregard offers that an offeror has withdrawn or is unable or unwilling to perform.
5. Lessor's appraisal. See commentary to § 213.4(l).
2(o) Security Interest and Security
1. Disclosable interests. For purposes of disclosure, a security interest is an interest taken by the lessor to secure performance of the lessee's obligation. For example, if a bank that is not a lessor makes a loan to a leasing company and takes assignments of consumer leases generated by that company to secure the loan, the bank's security interest in the lessor's receivables is not a security interest for purposes of this regulation.
2. General coverage. An interest the lessor may have in leased property must be disclosed only if it is considered a security interest under state or other applicable law. The term includes, but is not limited to, security interests under the Uniform Commercial Code; real property mortgages, deeds of trust, and other consensual or confessed liens whether or not recorded; mechanic's, materialman's, artisan's, and other similar liens; vendor's liens in both real and personal property; liens on property arising by operation of law; and any interest in a lease when used to secure payment or performance of an obligation.
Section 213.3--General Disclosure Requirements
3(a) General Requirements
1. Basis of disclosures. Disclosures must reflect the terms of the legal obligation between the parties. For example:
i. In a three-year lease with no penalty for termination after a one-year minimum term, disclosures are based on the full three-year term of the lease. The one-year minimum term is only relevant to the early termination provisions of §§ 213.4(g)(1), (k) and (l).
2. Clear and conspicuous standard. The clear and conspicuous standard requires that disclosures be reasonably understandable. For example, the disclosures must be presented in a way that does not obscure the relationship of the terms to each other; appendix A of this part contains model forms that meet this standard. In addition, although no minimum typesize is required, the disclosures must be legible, whether typewritten, handwritten, or printed by computer.
3. Multipurpose disclosure forms. A lessor may use a multipurpose disclosure form provided the lessor is able to designate the specific disclosures applicable to a given transaction, consistent with the requirement that disclosures be clearly and conspicuously provided.
4. Number of transactions. Lessors have flexibility in handling lease transactions that may be viewed as multiple transactions. For example:
i. When a lessor leases two items to the same lessee on the same day, the lessor may disclose the leases as either one or two lease transactions.
ii. When a lessor sells insurance or other incidental services in connection with a lease, the lessor may disclose in one of two ways: as a single lease transaction (in which case Regulation M, not Regulation Z, disclosures are required) or as a lease transaction and a credit transaction.
iii. When a lessor includes an outstanding lease or credit balance in a lease transaction, the lessor may disclose the outstanding balance as part of a single lease transaction (in which case Regulation M, not Regulation Z, disclosures are required) or as a lease transaction and a credit transaction.
3(a)(1) Form of Disclosures
1. Cross-references. Lessors may include in the nonsegregated disclosures a cross-reference to items in the segregated disclosures rather than repeat those items. A lessor may include in the segregated disclosures numeric or alphabetic designations as cross-references to related information so long as such references do not obscure or detract from the segregated disclosures.
2. Identification of parties. While disclosures must be made clearly and conspicuously, lessors are not required to use the word "lessor" and "lessee" to identify the parties to the lease transaction.
3. Lessor's address. The lessor must be identified by name; an address (and telephone number) may be provided.
4. Multiple lessors and lessees. In transactions involving multiple lessors and multiple lessees, a single lessor may make all the disclosures to a single lessee as long as the disclosure statement identifies all the lessors and lessees.
5. Lessee's signature. The regulation does not require that the lessee sign the disclosure statement, whether disclosures are separately provided or are part of the lease contract. Nevertheless, to provide evidence that disclosures are given before a lessee becomes obligated on the lease transaction, the lessor may, for example, ask the lessee to sign the disclosure statement or an acknowledgement of receipt, may place disclosures that are included in the lease documents above the lessee's signature, or include instructions alerting a lessee to read the disclosures prior to signing the lease.
3(a)(2) Segregation of Certain Disclosures
1. Location. The segregated disclosures referred to in § 213.3(a)(2) may be provided on a separate document and the other required disclosures may be provided in the lease contract, so long as all disclosures are given at the same time. Alternatively, all disclosures may be provided in a separate document or in the lease contract.
2. Additional information among segregated disclosures. The disclosures required to be segregated may contain only the information required or permitted to be included among the segregated disclosures.
3. Substantially similar. See commentary to appendix A of this part.
3(a)(3) Timing of Disclosures
1. Consummation. When a contractual relationship is created between the lessor and the lessee is a matter to be determined under state or other applicable law.
3(b) Additional Information; Nonsegregated Disclosures
1. State law disclosures. A lessor may include in the nonsegregated disclosures any state law disclosures that are not inconsistent with the act and regulation under § 213.9 as long as, in accordance with the standard set forth in § 213.3(b) for additional information, the state law disclosures are not used or placed to mislead or confuse or detract from any disclosure required by the regulation.
3(c) Multiple Lessors or Lessees
1. Multiple lessors. If a single lessor provides disclosures to a lessee on behalf of several lessors, all disclosures for the transaction must be given, even if the lessor making the disclosures would not otherwise have been obligated to make a particular disclosure.
3(d) Use of Estimates
1. Time of estimated disclosure. The lessor may, after making a reasonable effort to obtain information, use estimates to make disclosures if necessary information is unknown or unavailable at the time the disclosures are made.
2. Basis of estimates. Estimates must be made on the basis of the best information reasonably available at the time disclosures are made. The "reasonably available" standard requires that the lessor, acting in good faith, exercise due diligence in obtaining information. The lessor may rely on the representations of other parties. For example, the lessor might look to the consumer to determine the purpose for which leased property will be used, to insurance companies for the cost of insurance, or to an automobile manufacturer or dealer for the date of delivery. See commentary § 213.4(n) for estimating official fees and taxes.
3. Residual value of leased property at termination. In an open-end lease where the lessee's liability at the end of the lease term is based on the residual value of the leased property as determined at consummation, the estimate of the residual value must be reasonable and based on the best information reasonably available to the lessor (see § 213.4(m)). A lessor should generally use an accepted trade publication listing estimated current or future market prices for the leased property unless other information or a reasonable belief based on its experience provides the better information. For example:
i. An automobile lessor offering a three year open-end lease assigns a wholesale value to the vehicle at the end of the lease term. The lessor may disclose as an estimate a wholesale value derived from a generally accepted trade publication listing current wholesale values.
ii. Same facts as above, except that the lessor discloses an estimated value derived by adjusting the residual value quoted in the trade publication because, in its experience, the trade publication values either understate or overstate the prices actually received in local used-vehicle markets. The lessor may adjust estimated values quoted in trade publications if the lessor reasonably believes based on its experience that the values are understated or overstated.
4. Retail or wholesale value. The lessor may choose either a retail or a wholesale value in estimating the value of leased property at termination of an open-end lease provided the choice is consistent with the lessor's general practice when determining the value of the property at the end of the lease term. The lessor should indicate whether the value disclosed is a retail or wholesale value.
5. Labeling estimates. Generally, only the disclosure for which the exact information is unknown is labeled as an estimate. Nevertheless, when several disclosures are affected because of the unknown information, the lessor has the option of labeling as an estimate every affected disclosure or only the disclosure primarily affected.
3(e) Effect of Subsequent Occurrence
1. Subsequent occurrences. Examples of subsequent occurrences include:
i. An agreement between the lessee and lessor to change from a monthly to a weekly payment schedule.
ii. An increase in official fees or taxes.
iii. An increase in insurance premiums or coverage caused by a change in the law.
iv. Late delivery of an automobile caused by a strike.
3. Lessee's failure to perform. The lessor does not violate the regulation if a previously given disclosure becomes inaccurate when a lessee fails to perform obligations under the contract and a lessor takes actions that are necessary and proper in such circumstances to protect its interest. For example, the addition of insurance or a security interest by the lessor because the lessee has not performed obligations contracted for in the lease is not a violation of the regulation.
Section 213.4--Content of Disclosures
4(a) Description of Property
1. Placement of description. Although the description of leased property may not be included among the segregated disclosures, a lessor may choose to place the description directly above the segregated disclosures.
4(b) Amount Due at Lease Signing or Delivery
1. Consummation. See commentary to § 213.3(a)(3).
2. Capitalized cost reduction. A capitalized cost reduction is a payment in the nature of a downpayment on the leased property that reduces the amount to be capitalized over the term of the lease. This amount does not include any amounts included in a periodic payment paid at lease signing or delivery.
3. "Negative" equity trade-in allowance. If an amount owed on a prior lease or credit balance exceeds the agreed upon value of a trade-in, the difference is not reflected as a negative trade-in allowance under § 213.4(b). The lessor may disclose the trade-in allowance as zero or not applicable, or may leave a blank line.
4. Rebates. Only rebates applied toward an amount due at lease signing or delivery are required to be disclosed under § 213.4(b).
5. Balance sheet approach. In motor-vehicle leases, the total for the column labeled "total amount due at lease signing or delivery" must equal the total for the column labeled "how the amount due at lease signing or delivery will be paid."
6. Amounts to be paid in cash. The term cash is intended to include payments by check or other payment methods in addition to currency; however, a lessor may add a line item under the column "how the amount due at lease signing or delivery will be paid" for non-currency payments such as credit cards.
4(c) Payment Schedule and Total Amount of Periodic Payments
1. Periodic payments. The phrase "number, amount, and due dates or periods of payments" requires the disclosure of all payments that are made at regular or irregular intervals and generally derived from rent, capitalized or amortized amounts such as depreciation, and other amounts that are collected by the lessor at the same interval(s), including for example, taxes, maintenance, and insurance charges. Other periodic payments may, but need not, be disclosed under § 213.4(c).
4(d) Other Charges
1. Coverage. Section 213.4(d) requires the disclosure of charges that are anticipated by the parties incident to the normal operation of the lease agreement. If a lessor is unsure whether a particular fee is an "other charge," the lessor may disclose the fee as such without violating § 213.4(d) or the segregation rule under § 213.3(a)(2).
2. Excluded charges. This section does not require disclosure of charges that are imposed when the lessee terminates early, fails to abide by, or modifies the terms of the existing lease agreement, such as charges for:
i. Late payment.
iii. Early termination.
iv. Deferral of payments.
3. Third-party fees and charges. Third-party fees or charges collected by the lessor on behalf of third parties, such as taxes, are not disclosed under § 213.4(d).
4. Relationship to other provisions. The other charges mentioned in this paragraph are charges that are not required to be disclosed under some other provision of § 213.4. To illustrate:
i. The price of a mechanical breakdown protection (MBP) contract is sometimes disclosed as an "other charge." Nevertheless, the price of MBP is sometimes reflected in the periodic payment disclosure under § 213.4(c) or in states where MBP is regarded as insurance, the cost is to be disclosed in accordance with § 213.4(o).
5. Lessee's liabilities at the end of the lease term. Liabilities that the lessor imposes upon the lessee at the end of the scheduled lease term and that must be disclosed under § 213.4(d) include disposition and ""pick-up'' charges.
6. Optional "disposition" charges. Disposition and similar charges that are anticipated by the parties as an incident to the normal operation of the lease agreement must be disclosed under § 213.4(d). If, under a lease agreement, a lessee may return leased property to various locations, and the lessor charges a disposition fee depending upon the location chosen, under § 213.4(d), the lessor must disclose the highest amount charged. In such circumstances, the lessor may also include a brief explanation of the fee structure in the segregated disclosure. For example, if no fee or a lower fee is imposed for returning a leased vehicle to the originating dealer as opposed to another location, that fact may be disclosed. By contrast, if the terms of the lease treat the return of the leased property to a location outside the lessor's service area as a default, the fee imposed is not disclosed as an "other charge," although it may be required to be disclosed under § 213.4(q).
4(e) Total of Payments
1. Open-end lease. The additional statement is required under § 213.4(e) for open-end leases because, with some limitations, a lessee is liable at the end of the lease term for the difference between the residual and realized values of the leased property.
4(f) Payment Calculation
1. Motor-vehicle lease. Whether leased property is a motor vehicle is determined by state or other applicable law.
2. Multiple-items. If a lease transaction involves multiple items of leased property, one of which is not a motor vehicle under state law, at their option, lessors may include all items in the disclosures required under § 213.4(f). See comment 3(a)--4 regarding disclosure of multiple transactions.
4(f)(1) Gross Capitalized Cost
1. Agreed upon value of the vehicle. The agreed upon value of a motor vehicle includes the amount of capitalized items such as charges for vehicle accessories and options, and delivery or destination charges. The lessor may also include taxes and fees for title, licenses, and registration that are capitalized. Charges for service or maintenance contracts, insurance products, guaranteed automobile protection, or an outstanding balance on a prior lease or credit transaction are not included in the agreed upon value.
2. Itemization of the gross capitalized cost. The lessor may choose to provide the itemization of the gross capitalized cost only on request or may provide the itemization as a matter of course. In the latter case, the lessor need not provide a statement of the lessee's option to receive an itemization. The gross capitalized cost must be itemized by type and amount. The lessor may include in the itemization an identification of the items and amounts of some or all of the items contained in the agreed upon value of the vehicle. The itemization must be provided at the same time as the other disclosures required by § 213.4, but it may not be included among the segregated disclosures.
4(f)(7) Total of Base Periodic Payment
1. Accuracy of disclosure. If the periodic payment calculation under § 213.4(f) has been calculated correctly, the amount disclosed under § 213.4(f)(7)--the total of base periodic payments--is correct for disclosure purposes even if that amount differs from the base periodic payment disclosed under § 213.4(f)(9) multiplied by the number of lease payments disclosed under § 213.4(f)(8), when the difference is due to rounding.
1. Lease Term. The lease term may be disclosed among the segregated disclosures.
4(g) Early Termination
4(g)(1) Conditions and Disclosure of Charges
1. Reasonableness of charges. See the commentary to § 213.4(q).
2. Description of the method. Section 213.4(g)(1) requires a full description of the method of determining an early termination charge. The lessor should attempt to provide consumers with clear and understandable descriptions of its early termination charges. Descriptions that are full, accurate, and not intended to be misleading will comply with § 213.4(g)(1), even if the descriptions are complex. In providing a full description of an early termination method, a lessor may use the name of a generally accepted method of computing the unamortized cost portion (also known as the "adjusted lease balance") of its early termination charges. For example, a lessor may state that the "constant yield" method will be utilized in obtaining the adjusted lease balance, but must specify how that figure, and any other term or figure, is used in computing the total early termination charge imposed upon the consumer. Additionally, if a lessor refers to a named method in this manner, the lessor must provide a written explanation of that method if requested by the consumer. The lessor has the option of providing the explanation as a matter of course in the lease documents or on a separate document.
3. Timing of written explanation of a named method. While a lessor may provide an address or telephone number for the consumer to request a written explanation of the named method used to calculate the adjusted leased balance, if at consummation a consumer requests such an explanation, the lessor must provide a written explanation at that time. If a consumer requests an explanation after consummation, the lessor must provide a written explanation within a reasonable time after the request is made.
4. Default. When default is a condition for early termination of a lease, default charges must be disclosed under § 213.4(g)(1). See the commentary to § 213.4(q).
5. Lessee's liability at early termination. When the lessee is liable for the difference between the unamortized cost and the realized value at early termination, the method of determining the amount of the difference must be disclosed under § 213.4(g)(1).
4(h) Maintenance Responsibilities
1. Standards for wear and use. No disclosure is required if a lessor does not set standards or impose charges for wear and use (such as excess mileage).
4(i) Purchase Option
1. Mandatory disclosure of no purchase option. Generally the lessor need only make the specific required disclosures that apply to a transaction. In the case of a purchase option disclosure, however, a lessor must disclose affirmatively that the lessee has no option to purchase the leased property if the purchase option is inapplicable.
2. Existence of purchase option. Whether a purchase option exists under the lease is determined by state or other applicable law. The lessee's right to submit a bid to purchase property at termination of the lease is not an option to purchase under § 213.4(i) if the lessor is not required to accept the lessee's bid and the lessee does not receive preferential treatment.
3. Purchase-option fee. A purchase-option fee is disclosed under § 213.4(i), not § 213.4(d). The fee may be separately itemized or disclosed as part of the purchase-option price.
4. Official fees and taxes. Official fees such as those for taxes, licenses, and registration charged in connection with the exercise of a purchase option may be disclosed under § 213.4(i) as part of the purchase-option price (with or without a reference to their inclusion in that price) or may be separately disclosed and itemized by category. Alternatively, a lessor may provide a statement indicating that the purchase-option price does not include fees for tags, taxes, and registration.
5. Purchase-option price. Lessors must disclose the purchase-option price as a sum certain or as a sum certain to be determined at a future date by reference to a readily available independent source. The reference should provide sufficient information so that the lessee will be able to determine the actual price when the option becomes available. Statements of a purchase price as the "negotiated price" or the "fair market value" do not comply with the requirements of § 213.4(i)
4(j) Statement Referencing Nonsegregated Disclosures
1. Content. A lessor may delete inapplicable items from the disclosure. For example, if a lease contract does not include a security interest, the reference to a security interest may be omitted.
4(l) Right of Appraisal
1. Disclosure inapplicable. The lessee does not have the right to an independent appraisal merely because the lessee is liable at the end of the lease term or at early termination for unreasonable wear or use. Thus, the disclosure under § 213.4(l) does not apply. For example:
i. The automobile lessor might expect a lessee to return an undented car with four good tires at the end of the lease term. Even though it may hold the lessee liable for the difference between a dented car with bald tires and the value of a car in reasonably good repair, the disclosure under § 213.4(l) is not required.
2. Lessor's appraisal. If the lessor obtains an appraisal of the leased property to determine its realized value, that appraisal does not suffice for purposes of section 183(c) of the act; the lessor must disclose the lessee's right to an independent appraisal under § 213.4(l).
3. Retail or wholesale. In providing the disclosures in § 213.4(l), a lessor must indicate whether the wholesale or retail appraisal value will be used.
4. Time restriction on appraisal. The regulation does not specify a time period in which the lessee must exercise the appraisal right. The lessor may require a lessee to obtain the appraisal within a reasonable time after termination of the lease.
4(m) Liability at end of Lease Term Based on Residual Value
1. Open-end leases. Section 213.4(m) applies only to open-end leases.
2. Lessor's payment of attorney's fees. Section 183(a) of the act requires that the lessor pay the lessee's attorney's fees in all actions under § 213.4(m), whether successful or not.
4(m)(1) Rent and other charges
1. General. This disclosure is intended to represent the cost of financing an open-end lease based on charges and fees that the lessor requires the lessee to pay. Examples of disclosable charges, in addition to the rent charge, include acquisition, disposition, or assignment fees. Charges imposed by a third party whose services are not required by the lessor (such as official fees and voluntary insurance) are not included in the § 213.4(m)(1) disclosure.
4(m)(2) Excess liability
1. Coverage. The disclosure limiting the lessee's liability for the value of the leased property does not apply in the case of early termination.
2. Leases with a minimum term. If a lease has an alternative minimum term, the disclosures governing the liability limitation are not applicable for the minimum term.
3. Charges not subject to rebuttable presumption. The limitation on liability applies only to liability at the end of the lease term that is based on the difference between the residual value of the leased property and its realized value. The regulation does not preclude a lessor from recovering other charges from the lessee at the end of the lease term. Examples of such charges include:
i. Disposition charges.
ii. Excess mileage charges.
iv. In simple-interest accounting leases, amount by which the unamortized cost exceeds the residual value because the lessee has not made timely payments.
4(n) Fees and Taxes
1. Treatment of certain taxes. Taxes paid in connection with the lease are generally disclosed under § 213.4(n), but there are exceptions. To illustrate:
i. Taxes paid by lease signing or delivery are disclosed under § 213.4(b) and § 213.4(n).
ii. Taxes that are part of a regularly scheduled payments are reflected in the disclosure under § 213.4(c), (f), and (n).
iii. A tax payable by the lessor that is passed on to the consumer and is reflected in the lease documentation must be disclosed under § 213.4(n). A tax payable by the lessor and absorbed as a cost of doing business need not be disclosed.
iv. Taxes charged in connection with the exercise of a purchase option are disclosed under § 213.4(i), not § 213.4(n).
2. Estimates. In disclosing the total amount of fees and taxes under § 213.4(n), lessors may need to base the disclosure on estimated tax rates or amounts and are afforded great flexibility in doing so. Where a rate is applied to the future value of leased property, lessors have flexibility in estimating that value, including, but not limited to, using the mathematical average of the agreed upon value and the residual value or published valuation guides; or a lessor could prepare estimates using the agreed upon value and disclose a reasonable estimate of the total fees and taxes. Lessors may include a statement that the actual total of fees and taxes may be higher or lower depending on the tax rates in effect or the value of the leased property at the time a fee or tax is assessed.
1. Coverage. If insurance is obtained through the lessor, information on the type and amount of insurance coverage (whether voluntary or required) as well as the cost, must be disclosed.
2. Lessor's insurance. Insurance purchased by the lessor primarily for its own benefit, and absorbed as a business expense and not separately charged to the lessee, need not be disclosed under § 213.4(o) even if it provides an incidental benefit to the lessee.
3. Mechanical breakdown protection and other products. Whether products purchased in conjunction with a lease, such as mechanical breakdown protection (MBP) or guaranteed automobile protection (GAP), should be treated as insurance is determined by state or other applicable law. In states that do not treat MBP or GAP as insurance, § 213.4(o) disclosures are not required. In such cases the lessor may, however, disclose this information in accordance with the additional information provision in § 213.3(b). For MBP insurance contracts not capped by a dollar amount, lessors may describe coverage by referring to a limitation by mileage or time period, for example, by indicating that the mechanical breakdown contract insures parts of the automobile for up to 100,000 miles.
4(p) Warranties or Guarantees
1. Brief identification. The statement identifying warranties may be brief and need not describe or list all warranties applicable to specific parts such as for air conditioning, radio, or tires in an automobile. For example, manufacturer's warranties may be identified simply by a reference to the standard manufacturer's warranty. If a lessor provides a comprehensive list of warranties that may not all apply, to comply with § 213.4(p) the lessor must indicate which warranties apply or, alternatively, which warranties do not apply.
2. Warranty disclaimers. Although a disclaimer of warranties is not required by the regulation, the lessor may give a disclaimer as additional information in accordance with § 213.3(b).
4(q) Penalties and Other Charges for Delinquency
1. Collection costs. The automatic imposition of collection costs or attorney fees upon default must be disclosed under § 213.4(q). Collection costs or attorney fees that are not imposed automatically, but are contingent upon expenditures in conjunction with a collection proceeding or upon the employment of an attorney to effect collection, need not be disclosed.
2. Charges for early termination. When default is a condition for early termination of a lease, default charges must also be disclosed under § 213.4(g)(1). The § 213.4(q) and (g)(1) disclosures may, but need not, be combined. Examples of combined disclosures are provided in the model lease disclosure forms in appendix A.
3. Simple-interest leases. In a simple-interest accounting lease, the additional rent charge that accrues on the lease balance when a periodic payment is made after the due date does not constitute a penalty or other charge for late payment. Similarly, continued accrual of the rent charge after termination of the lease because the lessee fails to return the leased property does not constitute a default charge. But in either case, if the additional charge accrues at a rate higher than the normal rent charge, the lessor must disclose the amount of or the method of determining the additional charge under § 213.4(q).
4. Extension charges. Extension charges that exceed the rent charge in a simple-interest accounting lease or that are added separately are disclosed under § 213.4(q).
5. Reasonableness of charges. Pursuant to section 183(b) of the act, penalties or other charges for delinquency, default, or early termination may be specified in the lease but only in an amount that is reasonable in light of the anticipated or actual harm caused by the delinquency, default, or early termination, the difficulties of proof of loss, and the inconvenience or nonfeasibility of otherwise obtaining an adequate remedy.
4(r) Security Interest
1. Disclosable security interests. See § 213.2(o) and accompanying commentary to determine what security interests must be disclosed.
4(s) Limitations on Rate Information
Section 213.5--Renegotiations, Extensions and Assumptions
1. Basis of disclosures. Lessors have flexibility in making disclosures so long as they reflect the legal obligation under the renegotiated lease. For example, assume that a 24-month lease is replaced by a 36-month lease. The initial lease began on January 1, 1998, and was renegotiated and replaced on July 1, 1998, so that the new lease term ends on January 1, 2001.
i. If the renegotiated lease covers the 36-month period beginning January 1, 1998, the new disclosures would reflect all payments made by the lessee on the initial lease and all payments on the renegotiated lease. In this example, since the renegotiated lease covers a 36-month period beginning January 1, 1998, the disclosures must reflect payments made since that date. On the model form, the "total of base periodic payments" disclosed under § 213.4(f)(7) should reflect periodic payments to be made over the entire 36-month term. Payments received since January 1, 1998, are added as a new line item disclosed as "total of payments received" and are subtracted from the "total of base periodic payments" in calculating a new item disclosed as the "total of base periodic payments remaining." For example, if 6 monthly payments of $300 were received since January 1, 1998, the disclosure form should include a "total of base periodic payments" line from which $1,800 is subtracted to arrive at the "total of base periodic payments remaining." The remainder of the disclosures would not change.
ii. If the renegotiated lease covers only the remaining 30 months, from July 1, 1998, to January 1, 2001, the disclosures would reflect only the charges incurred in connection with the renegotiation and the payments for the remaining period.
1. Time of extension disclosures. If a consumer lease is extended for a specified term greater than six months, new disclosures are required at the time the extension is agreed upon. If the lease is extended on a month-to-month basis and the cumulative extensions exceed six months, new disclosures are required at the commencement of the seventh month and at the commencement of each seventh month thereafter for as long as the extensions continue. If a consumer lease is extended for terms of varying durations, one of which will exceed six months beyond the originally scheduled termination date of the lease, new disclosures are required at the commencement of the term that will exceed six months beyond the originally scheduled termination date.
2. Content of disclosures for month-to-month extensions. The disclosures for a lease extended on a month-to-month basis for more than six months should reflect the month-to-month nature of the transaction.
3. Basis of disclosures. The disclosures should be based on the extension period, including any upfront costs paid in connection with the extension. For example, assume that initially a lease ends on March 1, 1999. In January 1999, agreement is reached to extend the lease until October 1, 1999. The disclosure would include any extension fee paid in January and the periodic payments for the seven-month extension period beginning in March.
Section 213.6 [Reserved]
7(a) General Rule
1. Persons covered. All "persons" must comply with the advertising provisions in this section, not just those that meet the definition of a lessor in § 213.2(h). Thus, automobile dealers, merchants, and others who are not themselves lessors must comply with the advertising provisions of the regulation if they advertise consumer lease transactions. Pursuant to section 184(b) of the act, however, owners and personnel of the media in which an advertisement appears or through which it is disseminated are not subject to civil liability for violations under section 185(b) of the act.
2. "Usually and customarily." Section 213.7(a) does not prohibit the advertising of a single item or the promotion of a new leasing program, but prohibits the advertising of terms that are not and will not be available. Thus, an advertisement may state terms that will be offered for only a limited period or terms that will become available at a future date.
3. Total contractual obligation of advertised lease. Section 213.7 applies to advertisements for consumer leases, as defined in § 213.2(e). Under § 213.2(e), a consumer lease is exempt from the requirements of this Part if the total contractual obligation exceeds the threshold amount in effect at the time of consummation. See comment 2(e)--9. Accordingly, § 213.7 does not apply to an advertisement for a specific consumer lease if the total contractual obligation for that lease exceeds the threshold amount in effect when the advertisement is made. If a lessor promotes multiple consumer leases in a single advertisement, the entire advertisement must comply with § 213.7 unless all of the advertised leases are exempt under § 213.2(e). For example:
A, Assume that, in an advertisement, a lessor states that certain terms apply to a consumer lease for a specific automobile. The total contractual obligation of the advertised lease exceeds the threshold amount in effect when the advertisement is made. Although the advertisement does not refer to any other lease, some or all of the advertised terms for the exempt lease also apply to other leases offered by the lessor with total contractual obligations that do not exceed the applicable threshold amount. The advertisement is not required to comply with § 213.7 because it refers only to an exempt lease.
B. Assume that in an advertisement, a lessor states certain terms (such as the amount due at lease signing) that will apply to consumer leases for automobiles of a particular brand. However, the advertisement does not refer to a specific lease. The total contractual obligations of the leases for some of the automobiles will exceed the threshold amount in effect when the advertisement is made, but the total contractual obligations of the leases for other automobiles will not exceed the threshold. The entire advertisement must comply with § 213.7 because it refers to terms for consumer leases that are not exempt.
C. Assume that, in a single advertisement, a lessor states that certain terms apply to consumer leases for two different automobiles. The total contractual obligation of the lease for the first automobile exceeds the threshold amount in effect when the advertisement is made, but the total contractual obligation of the lease for the second automobile does not exceed the threshold. The entire advertisement must comply with § 213.7 because it refers to a consumer lease that is not exempt.
7(b) Clear and Conspicuous Standard
1. Standard. The disclosures in an advertisement in any media must be reasonably understandable. For example, very fine print in a television advertisement or detailed and very rapidly stated information in a radio advertisement does not meet the clear and conspicuous standard if consumers cannot see and read or hear, and cannot comprehend, the information required to be disclosed.
7(b)(1) Amount Due at Lease Signing or Delivery
1. Itemization not required. Only a total of amounts due at lease signing or delivery is required to be disclosed, not an itemization of its component parts. Such an itemization is provided in any transaction-specific disclosures provided under § 213.4.
2. Prominence rule. Except for a periodic payment, oral or written references to components of the total due at lease signing or delivery (for example, a reference to a capitalized cost reduction, where permitted) may not be more prominent than the disclosure of the total amount due at lease signing or delivery.
7(b)(2) Advertisement of a Lease Rate
1. Location of statement. The notice required to accompany a percentage rate stated in an advertisement must be placed in close proximity to the rate without any other intervening language or symbols. For example, a lessor may not place an asterisk next to the rate and place the notice elsewhere in the advertisement. In addition, with the exception of the notice required by § 213.4(s), the rate cannot be more prominent than any other § 213.4 disclosure stated in the advertisement.
7(c) Catalogs or Other Multi Page Advertisements; Electronic Advertisements
1. General rule. The multiple-page advertisements referred to in § 213.7(c) are advertisements consisting of a series of numbered pages---for example, a supplement to a newspaper. A mailing comprising several separate flyers or pieces of promotional material in a single envelope is not a single multiple-page advertisement.
2. Cross-references. A catalog or other multiple-page advertisement or an electronic advertisement (such as an advertisement appearing on an Internet Web site) is a single advertisement (requiring only one set of lease disclosures) if it contains a table, chart, or schedule with the disclosures required under § 213.7(d)(2)(i) through (v). If one of the triggering terms listed in § 213.7(d)(1) appears in a catalog, or in a multiple-page or electronic advertisement, it must clearly direct the consumer to the page or location where the table, chart, or schedule begins. For example, in an electronic advertisement, a term triggering additional disclosures may be accompanied by a link that directly connects the consumer to the additional information.
7(d)(1) Triggering Terms
1. Typical example. When any triggering term appears in a lease advertisement, the additional terms enumerated in § 213.7(d)(2) (i) through (v) must also appear. In a multi-lease advertisement, an example of one or more typical leases with a statement of all the terms applicable to each may be used. The examples must be labeled as such and must reflect representative lease terms that are made available by the lessor to consumers.
7(d)(2) Additional Terms
1. Third-party fees that vary by state or locality. The disclosure of a periodic payment or total amount due at lease signing or delivery may:
i. Exclude third-party fees, such as taxes, licenses, and registration fees and disclose that fact; or
7(e) Alternative DisclosuresMerchandise Tags
1. Multiple-item leases. Multiple-item leases that utilize merchandise tags requiring additional disclosures may use the alternate disclosure rule.
7(f) Alternative DisclosuresTelevision or Radio Advertisements
7(f)(1) Toll-Free Number or Print Advertisement
1. Publication in general circulation. A reference to a written advertisement appearing in a newspaper circulated nationally, for example, USA Today or the Wall Street Journal, may satisfy the general circulation requirement in § 213.7(f)(1)(ii).
2. Toll-free number, local or collect calls. In complying with the disclosure requirements of § 213.7(f)(1)(i), a lessor must provide a toll-free number for nonlocal calls made from an area code other than the one used in the lessor's dialing area. Alternatively, a lessor may provide any telephone number that allows a consumer to reverse the phone charges when calling for information.
3. Multi-purpose number. When an advertised toll-free number responds with a recording, lease disclosures must be provided early in the sequence to ensure that the consumer receives the required disclosures. For example, in providing several dialing options--such as providing directions to the lessor's place of business--the option allowing the consumer to request lease disclosures should be provided early in the telephone message to ensure that the option to request disclosures is not obscured by other information.
4. Statement accompanying toll free number. Language must accompany a telephone and television number indicating that disclosures are available by calling the toll-free number, such as "call 1-800-000-0000 for details about costs and terms."
Section 213.8--Record Retention
1. Manner of retaining evidence. A lessor must retain evidence of having performed required actions and of having made required disclosures. Such records may be retained in paper form, on microfilm, microfiche, or computer, or by any other method designed to reproduce records accurately. The lessor need retain only enough information to reconstruct the required disclosures or other records.
Section 213.9--Relation to State Laws
1. Exemptions granted. Effective October 1, 1982, the Board granted the following exemptions from portions of the Consumer Leasing Act:
i. Maine. Lease transactions subject to the Maine Consumer Credit Code and its implementing regulations are exempt from chapters 2, 4, and 5 of the federal act. (The exemption does not apply to transactions in which a federally chartered institution is a lessor.)
ii. Oklahoma. Lease transactions subject to the Oklahoma Consumer Credit Code are exempt from chapters 2 and 5 of the federal act. (The exemption does not apply to sections 132 through 135 of the federal act, nor does it apply to transactions in which a federally chartered institution is a lessor.)
Appendix A--Model Forms
1. Permissible changes. Although use of the model forms is not required, lessors using them properly will be deemed to be in compliance with the regulation. Generally, lessors may make certain changes in the format or content of the forms and may delete any disclosures that are inapplicable to a transaction without losing the act's protection from liability. For example, the model form based on monthly periodic payments may be modified for single-payment lease transactions or for quarterly or other regular or irregular periodic payments. The model form may also be modified to reflect that a transaction is an extension. The content, format, and headings for the segregated disclosures must be substantially similar to those contained in the model forms; therefore, any changes should be minimal. The changes to the model forms should not be so extensive as to affect the substance and the clarity of the disclosures.
2. Examples of acceptable changes.
i. Using the first person, instead of the second person, in referring to the lessee.
ii. Using "lessee," "lessor," or names instead of pronouns.
iii. Rearranging the sequence of the nonsegregated disclosures.
v. Deleting or blocking out inapplicable disclosures, filling in "N/A" (not applicable) or "0," crossing out, leaving blanks, checking a box for applicable items, or circling applicable items (this should facilitate use of multi-purpose standard forms).
vi. Adding language or symbols to indicate estimates.
vii. Adding numeric or alphabetic designations.
viii. Rearranging the disclosures into vertical columns, except for § 213.4(b) through (e) disclosures.
ix. Using icons and other graphics.
3. Model closed-end or net vehicle lease disclosure. Model A-2 is designed for a closed-end or net vehicle lease. Under the "Early Termination and Default" provision a reference to the lessee's right to an independent appraisal of the leased vehicle under § 213.4(l) is included for those closed-end leases in which the lessee's liability at early termination is based on the vehicle's realized value.
4. Model furniture lease disclosures. Model A--3 is a closed-end lease disclosure statement designed for a typical furniture lease. It does not include a disclosure of the appraisal right at early termination required under § 213.4(l) because few closed-end furniture leases base the lessee's liability at early termination on the realized value of the leased property. The disclosure should be added if it is applicable.