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Federal Deposit
Insurance Corporation

Each depositor insured to at least $250,000 per insured bank

FDIC Law, Regulations, Related Acts

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1000 - Federal Deposit Insurance Act


(e)  PROVISIONS RELATING TO CONTRACTS ENTERED INTO BEFORE APPOINTMENT OF CONSERVATOR OR RECEIVER.--

(1)  AUTHORITY TO REPUDIATE CONTRACTS.--In addition to any other rights a conservator or receiver may have, the conservator or receiver for any insured depository institution may disaffirm or repudiate any contract or lease--

(A)  to which such institution is a party;

(B)  the performance of which the conservator or receiver, in the conservator's or receiver's discretion, determines to be burdensome; and

(C)  the disaffirmance or repudiation of which the conservator or receiver determines, in the conservator's or receiver's discretion, will promote the orderly administration of the institution's affairs.

(2)  TIMING OF REPUDIATION.--The conservator or receiver appointed for any insured depository institution in accordance with subsection (c) shall determine whether or not to exercise the rights of repudiation under this subsection within a reasonable period following such appointment.

(3)  CLAIMS FOR DAMAGES FOR REPUDIATION.--

(A)  IN GENERAL.--Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (C) and paragraphs (4), (5), and (6), the liability of the conservator or receiver for the disaffirmance or repudiation of any contract pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be--

(i)  limited to actual direct compensatory damages; and

(ii)  determined as of--

(I)  the date of the appointment of the conservator or receiver; or

(II)  in the case of any contract or agreement referred to in paragraph (8), the date of the disaffirmance or repudiation of such contract or agreement.

(B)  NO LIABILITY FOR OTHER DAMAGES.--For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "actual direct compensatory damages" does not include--

(i)  punitive or exemplary damages;

(ii)  damages for lost profits or opportunity; or

(iii)  damages for pain and suffering.

(C)  MEASURE OF DAMAGES FOR REPUDIATION OF FINANCIAL CONTRACTS.--In the case of any qualified financial contract or agreement to which paragraph (8) applies, compensatory damages shall be--

(i)  deemed to include normal and reasonable costs of cover or other reasonable measures of damages utilized in the industries for such contract and agreement claims; and

(ii)  paid in accordance with this subsection and subsection (i) except as otherwise specifically provided in this section.

(4)  LEASES UNDER WHICH THE INSTITUTION IS THE LESSEE.--

(A)  IN GENERAL.--If the conservator or receiver disaffirms or repudiates a lease under which the insured depository institution was the lessee, the conservator or receiver shall not be liable for any damages (other than damages determined pursuant to subparagraph (B)) for the disaffirmance or repudiation of such lease.

(B)  PAYMENTS OF RENT.--Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the lessor under a lease to which such subparagraph applies shall--

(i)  be entitled to the contractual rent accruing before the later of the date--

(I)  the notice of disaffirmance or repudiation is mailed; or

(II)  the disaffirmance or repudiation becomes effective,

unless the lessor is in default or breach of the terms of the lease;

(ii)  have no claim for damages under any acceleration clause or other penalty provision in the lease; and

(iii)  have a claim for any unpaid rent, subject to all appropriate offsets and defenses, due as of the date of the appointment which shall be paid in accordance with this subsection and subsection (i).

(5)  LEASES UNDER WHICH THE INSTITUTION IS THE LESSOR.--

(A)  IN GENERAL.--If the conservator or receiver repudiates an unexpired written lease of real property of the insured depository institution under which the institution is the lessor and the lessee is not, as of the date of such repudiation, in default, the lessee under such lease may either--

(i)  treat the lease as terminated by such repudiation; or

(ii)  remain in possession of the leasehold interest for the balance of the term of the lease unless the lessee defaults under the terms of the lease after the date of such repudiation.

(B)  PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO LESSEE REMAINING IN POSSESSION.--If any lessee under a lease described in subparagraph (A) remains in possession of a leasehold interest pursuant to clause (ii) of such subparagraph--

(i)  the lessee--

(I)  shall continue to pay the contractual rent pursuant to the terms of the lease after the date of the repudiation of such lease;

(II)  may offset against any rent payment which accrues after the date of the repudiation of the lease, any damages which accrue after such date due to the nonperformance of any obligation of the insured depository institution under the lease after such date; and

(ii)  the conservator or receiver shall not be liable to the lessee for any damages arising after such date as a result of the repudiation other than the amount of any offset allowed under clause (i)(II).

(6)  CONTRACTS FOR THE SALE OF REAL PROPERTY.--

(A)  IN GENERAL.--If the conservator or receiver repudiates any contract (which meets the requirements of each paragraph of section 13(e)) for the sale of real property and the purchaser of such real property under such contract is in possession and is not, as of the date of such repudiation, in default, such purchaser may either--

(i)  treat the contract as terminated by such repudiation; or

(ii)  remain in possession of such real property.

(B)  PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO PURCHASER REMAINING IN POSSESSION.--If any purchaser of real property under any contract described in subparagraph (A) remains in possession of such property pursuant to clause (ii) of such subparagraph--

(i)  the purchaser--

(I)  shall continue to make all payments due under the contract after the date of the repudiation of the contract; and

(II)  may offset against any such payments any damages which accrue after such date due to the nonperformance (after such date) of any obligation of the depository institution under the contract; and

(ii)  the conservator or receiver shall--

(I)  not be liable to the purchaser for any damages arising after such date as a result of the repudiation other than the amount of any offset allowed under clause (i)(II);

(II)  deliver title to the purchaser in accordance with the provisions of the contract; and

(III)  have no obligation under the contract other than the performance required under subclause (II).

(C)  ASSIGNMENT AND SALE ALLOWED.--

(i)  IN GENERAL.--No provision of this paragraph shall be construed as limiting the right of the conservator or receiver to assign the contract described in subparagraph (A) and sell the property subject to the contract and the provisions of this paragraph.

(ii)  NO LIABILITY AFTER ASSIGNMENT AND SALE.--If an assignment and sale described in clause (i) is consummated, the conservator or receiver shall have no further liability under the contract described in subparagraph (A) or with respect to the real property which was the subject of such contract.

(7)  PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO SERVICE CONTRACTS.--

(A)  SERVICES PERFORMED BEFORE APPOINTMENT.--In the case of any contract for services between any person and any insured depository institution for which the Corporation has been appointed conservator or receiver, any claim of such person for services performed before the appointment of the conservator or the receiver shall be--

(i)  a claim to be paid in accordance with subsections (d) and (i); and

(ii)  deemed to have arisen as of the date the conservator or receiver was appointed.

(B)  SERVICES PERFORMED AFTER APPOINTMENT AND PRIOR TO REPUDIATION.--If, in the case of any contract for services described in subparagraph (A), the conservator or receiver accepts performance by the other person before the conservator or receiver makes any determination to exercise the right of repudiation of such contract under this section--

(i)  the other party shall be paid under the terms of the contract for the services performed; and

(ii)  the amount of such payment shall be treated as an administrative expense of the conservatorship or receivership.

(C)  ACCEPTANCE OF PERFORMANCE NO BAR TO SUBSEQUENT REPUDIATION.--The acceptance by any conservator or receiver of services referred to in subparagraph (B) in connection with a contract described in such subparagraph shall not affect the right of the conservator or receiver to repudiate such contract under this section at any time after such performance.

(8)  CERTAIN QUALIFIED FINANCIAL CONTRACTS.--

(A)  RIGHTS OF PARTIES TO CONTRACTS.--Subject to paragraphs (9) and (10) of this subsection and notwithstanding any other provision of this Act (other than subsection (d)(9) of this section and section 13(e)), any other Federal law, or the law of any State, no person shall be stayed or prohibited from exercising--

(i)  any right such person has to cause the termination, liquidation, or acceleration of any qualified financial contract with an insured depository institution which arises upon the appointment of the Corporation as receiver for such institution at any time after such appointment;

(ii)  any right under any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to one or more qualified financial contracts described in clause (i).

(iii)  any right to offset or net out any termination value, payment amount, or other transfer obligation arising under or in connection with 1 or more contracts and agreements described in clause (i), including any master agreement for such contracts or agreements.

(B)  APPLICABILITY OF OTHER PROVISIONS.--Subsection (d)(12) shall apply in the case of any judicial action or proceeding brought against any receiver referred to in subparagraph (A), or the insured depository institution for which such receiver was appointed, by any party to a contract or agreement described in subparagraph (A)(i) with such institution.

(C)  CERTAIN TRANSFERS NOT AVOIDABLE.--

(i)  IN GENERAL.--Notwithstanding paragraph (11), section 5242 of the Revised Statutes of the United States or any other Federal or State law relating to the avoidance of preferential or fraudulent transfers, the Corporation, whether acting as such or as conservator or receiver of an insured depository institution, may not avoid any transfer of money or other property in connection with any qualified financial contract with an insured depository institution.

(ii)  EXCEPTION FOR CERTAIN TRANSFERS.--Clause (i) shall not apply to any transfer of money or other property in connection with any qualified financial contract with an insured depository institution if the Corporation determines that the transferee had actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud such institution, the creditors of such institution, or any conservator or receiver appointed for such institution.

(D)  CERTAIN CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS DEFINED.--For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:

(i)  QUALIFIED FINANCIAL CONTRACT.--The term "qualified financial contract" means any securities contract, commodity contract, forward contract, repurchase agreement, swap agreement, and any similar agreement that the Corporation determines by regulation, resolution, or order to be a qualified financial contract for purposes of this paragraph.

(ii)  SECURITIES CONTRACT.--The term "securities contract"--

(I)  means a contract for the purchase, sale, or loan of a security, a certificate of deposit, a mortgage loan, any interest in a mortgage loan, a group or index of securities, certificates of deposit, or mortgage loans or interests therein (including any interest therein or based on the value thereof) or any option on any of the foregoing, including any option to purchase or sell any such security, certificate of deposit, mortgage loan, interest, group or index, or option, and including any repurchase or reverse repurchase transaction on any such security, certificate of deposit, mortgage loan, interest, group or index, or option (whether or not such repurchase or reverse repurchase transaction is a "repurchase agreement", as defined in clause (v));

(II)  does not include any purchase, sale, or repurchase obligation under a participation in a commercial mortgage loan unless the Corporation determines by regulation, resolution, or order to include any such agreement within the meaning of such term;

(III)  means any option entered into on a national securities exchange relating to foreign currencies;

(IV)  means the guarantee (including by novation) by or to any securities clearing agency of any settlement of cash, securities, certificates of deposit, mortgage loans or interest therein, group or index of securities, certificates of deposit, or mortgage loans or interest therein (including any interest therein or based on the value thereof) or option on any of the foregoing, including any option to purchase or sell any such security, certificate of deposit, mortgage loan, interest, group or index, or option (whether or not such settlement is in connection with any agreement or transaction referred to in subclauses (I) through (XII) (other than subclause (II));

(V)  means any margin loan;

(VI)  means any extension of credit for the clearance or settlement of securities transactions;

(VII)  means any loan transaction coupled with a securities collar transaction, any prepaid securities forward transaction, or any total return swap transaction coupled with a securities sale transaction;

(VIII)  means any other agreement or transaction that is similar to any agreement or transaction referred to in this clause;

(IX)  means any combination of the agreements or transactions referred to in this clause;

(X)  means any option to enter into any agreement or transaction referred to in this clause;

(XI)  means a master agreement that provides for an agreement or transaction referred to in subclause (I), (III), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (VIII), (IX), or (X) together with all supplements to any such master agreement, without regard to whether the master agreement provides for an agreement or transaction that is not a securities contract under this clause, except that the master agreement shall be considered to be a securities contract under this clause only with respect to each agreement or transaction under the master agreement that is referred to in subclause (I), (III), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), (VIII), (IX), or (X); and

(XII)  means any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to any agreement or transaction referred to in this clause, including any guarantee or reimbursement obligation in connection with any agreement or transaction referred to in this clause.

(iii)  COMMODITY CONTRACT.--The term "commodity contract" means--

(I)  with respect to a futures commission merchant, a contract for the purchase or sale of a commodity for future delivery on, or subject to the rules of, a contract market or board of trade;

(II)  with respect to a foreign futures commission merchant, a foreign future;

(III)  with respect to a leverage transaction merchant, a leverage transaction;

(IV)  with respect to a clearing organization, a contract for the purchase or sale of a commodity for future delivery on, or subject to the rules of, a contract market or board of trade that is cleared by such clearing organization, or commodity option traded on, or subject to the rules of, a contract market or board of trade that is cleared by such clearing organization;

(V)  with respect to a commodity options dealer, a commodity option;

(VI)  any other agreement or transaction that is similar to any agreement or transaction referred to in this clause;

(VII)  any combination of the agreements or transactions referred to in this clause;

(VIII)  any option to enter into any agreement or transaction referred to in this clause;

(IX)  a master agreement that provides for an agreement or transaction referred to in subclause (I), (II), (III), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), or (VIII), together with all supplements to any such master agreement, without regard to whether the master agreement provides for an agreement or transaction that is not a commodity contract under this clause, except that the master agreement shall be considered to be a commodity contract under this clause only with respect to each agreement or transaction under the master agreement that is referred to in subclause (I), (II), (III), (IV), (V), (VI), (VII), or (VIII); or

(X)  any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to any agreement or transaction referred to in this clause, including any guarantee or reimbursement obligation in connection with any agreement or transaction referred to in this clause.

(iv)  FORWARD CONTRACT.--The term "forward contract" means--

(I)  a contract (other than a commodity contract) for the purchase, sale, or transfer of a commodity or any similar good, article, service, right, or interest which is presently or in the future becomes the subject of dealing in the forward contract trade, or product or byproduct thereof, with a maturity date more than 2 days after the date the contract is entered into, including, a repurchase or reverse repurchase transaction (whether or not such repurchase or reverse repurchase transaction is a "repurchase agreement", as defined in clause (v)), consignment, lease, swap, hedge transaction, deposit, loan, option, allocated transaction, unallocated transaction, or any other similar agreement;

(II)  any combination of agreements or transactions referred to in subclauses (I) and (III);

(III)  any option to enter into any agreement or transaction referred to in subclause (I) or (II);

(IV)  a master agreement that provides for an agreement or transaction referred to in subclauses (I), (II), or (III), together with all supplements to any such master agreement, without regard to whether the master agreement provides for an agreement or transaction that is not a forward contract under this clause, except that the master agreement shall be considered to be a forward contract under this clause only with respect to each agreement or transaction under the master agreement that is referred to in subclause (I), (II), or (III); or

(V)  any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to any agreement or transaction referred to in subclause (I), (II), (III), or (IV), including any guarantee or reimbursement obligation in connection with any agreement or transaction referred to in any such subclause.

(v)  REPURCHASE AGREEMENT.--The term "repurchase agreement" (which definition also applies to a reverse repurchase agreement)--

(I)  means an agreement, including related terms, which provides for the transfer of one or more certificates of deposit, mortgage-related securities (as such term is defined in the Securities Exchange Act of 1934), mortgage loans, interests in mortgage-related securities or mortgage loans, eligible bankers' acceptances, qualified foreign government securities or securities that are direct obligations of, or that are fully guaranteed by, the United States or any agency of the United States against the transfer of funds by the transferee of such certificates of deposit, eligible bankers' acceptances, securities, mortgage loans, or interests with a simultaneous agreement by such transferee to transfer to the transferor thereof certificates of deposit, eligible bankers' acceptances, securities, mortgage loans, or interests as described above, at a date certain not later than 1 year after such transfers or on demand, against the transfer of funds, or any other similar agreement;

(II)  does not include any repurchase obligation under a participation in a commercial mortgage loan unless the Corporation determines by regulation, resolution, or order to include any such participation within the meaning of such term;

(III)  means any combination of agreements or transactions referred to in subclauses (I) and (IV);

(IV)  means any option to enter into any agreement or transaction referred to in subclause (I) or (III);

(V)  means a master agreement that provides for an agreement or transaction referred to in subclause (I), (III), or (IV), together with all supplements to any such master agreement, without regard to whether the master agreement provides for an agreement or transaction that is not a repurchase agreement under this clause, except that the master agreement shall be considered to be a repurchase agreement under this subclause only with respect to each agreement or transaction under the master agreement that is referred to in subclause (I), (III), or (IV); and

(VI)  means any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to any agreement or transaction referred to in subclause (I), (III), (IV), or (V), including any guarantee or reimbursement obligation in connection with any agreement or transaction referred to in any such subclause.

For purposes of this clause, the term "qualified foreign government security" means a security that is a direct obligation of, or that is fully guaranteed by, the central government of a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (as determined by regulation or order adopted by the appropriate Federal banking authority).

(vi)  SWAP AGREEMENT.--The term "swap agreement" means--

(I)  any agreement, including the terms and conditions incorporated by reference in any such agreement, which is an interest rate swap, option, future, or forward agreement, including a rate floor, rate cap, rate collar, cross-currency rate swap, and basis swap; a spot, same day-tomorrow, tomorrow-next, forward, or other foreign exchange precious metals or other commodity agreement; a currency swap, option, future, or forward agreement; an equity index or equity swap, option, future, or forward agreement; a debt index or debt swap, option, future, or forward agreement; a total return, credit spread or credit swap, option, future, or forward agreement; a commodity index or commodity swap, option, future, or forward agreement; weather swap, option, future, or forward agreement; an emissions swap, option, future, or forward agreement; or an inflation swap, option, future, or forward agreement;

(II)  any agreement or transaction that is similar to any other agreement or transaction referred to in this clause and that is of a type that has been, is presently, or in the future becomes, the subject of recurrent dealings in the swap or other derivatives markets (including terms and conditions incorporated by reference in such agreement) and that is a forward, swap, future, option or spot transaction on one or more rates, currencies, commodities, equity securities or other equity instruments, debt securities or other debt instruments, quantitative measures associated with an occurrence, extent of an occurrence, or contingency associated with a financial, commercial, or economic consequence, or economic or financial indices or measures of economic or financial risk or value;

(III)  any combination of agreements or transactions referred to in this clause;

(IV)  any option to enter into any agreement or transaction referred to in this clause;

(V)  a master agreement that provides for an agreement or transaction referred to in subclause (I), (II), (III), or (IV), together with all supplements to any such master agreement, without regard to whether the master agreement contains an agreement or transaction that is not a swap agreement under this clause, except that the master agreement shall be considered to be a swap agreement under this clause only with respect to each agreement or transaction under the master agreement that is referred to in subclause (I), (II), (III), or (IV); and

(VI)  any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to any agreements or transactions referred to in subclause (I), (II), (III), (IV), or (V), including any guarantee or reimbursement obligation in connection with any agreement or transaction referred to in any such subclause. Such term is applicable for purposes of this subsection only and shall not be construed or applied so as to challenge or affect the characterization, definition, or treatment of any swap agreement under any other statute, regulation, or rule, including the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Legal Certainty for Bank Products Act of 2000, the Securities Laws (as such term is defined in section 3(a)(47) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) and the Commodity Exchange Act.

(vii)  TREATMENT OF MASTER AGREEMENT AS ONE AGREEMENT.--Any master agreement for any contract or agreement described in any preceding clause of this subparagraph (or any master agreement for such master agreement or agreements), together with all supplements to such master agreement, shall be treated as a single agreement and a single qualified financial contract. If a master agreement contains provisions relating to agreements or transactions that are not themselves qualified financial contracts, the master agreement shall be deemed to be a qualified financial contract only with respect to those transactions that are themselves qualified financial contracts.

(viii)  TRANSFER.--The term "transfer" means every mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with property or with an interest in property, including retention of title as a security interest and foreclosure of the depository institution's equity of redemption.

(ix)  PERSON.--The term "person" includes any governmental entity in addition to any entity included in the definition of such term in section 1 of title 1, United States Code.

(E)  CERTAIN PROTECTIONS IN EVENT OF APPOINTMENT OF CONSERVATOR.--Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act (other than subsections (d)(9)) and (e)(10) of this section, and section 13(e) of this Act), any other Federal law, or the law of any State, no person shall be stayed or prohibited from exercising--

(i)  any right such person has to cause the termination, liquidation, or acceleration of any qualified financial contract with a depository institution in a conservatorship based upon a default under such financial contract which is enforceable under applicable noninsolvency law;

(ii)  any right under any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to one or more qualified financial contracts described in clause (i);

(iii)  any right to offset or net out any termination values, payment amounts, or other transfer obligations arising under or in connection with such qualified financial contracts.

(F)  CLARIFICATION.--No provision of law shall be construed as limiting the right or power of the Corporation, or authorizing any court or agency to limit or delay, in any manner, the right or power of the Corporation to transfer any qualified financial contract in accordance with paragraphs (9) and (10) of this subsection or to disaffirm or repudiate any such contract in accordance with subsection (e)(1) of this section.

(G)  WALKAWAY CLAUSES NOT EFFECTIVE.--

(i)  IN GENERAL.--Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (E), and sections 403 and 404 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991, no walkaway clause shall be enforceable in a qualified financial contract of an insured depository institution in default.

(ii)  LIMITED SUSPENSION OF CERTAIN OBLIGATIONS.--In the case of a qualified financial contract referred to in clause (i), any payment or delivery obligations otherwise due from a party pursuant to the qualified financial contract shall be suspended from the time the receiver is appointed until the earlier of--

(I)  the time such party receives notice that such contract has been transferred pursuant to subparagraph (A); or

(II)  5:00 p.m. (eastern time) on the business day following the date of the appointment of the receiver.

(iii)  WALKAWAY CLAUSE DEFINED.--For purposes of this subparagraph, the term walkaway clause' means any provision in a qualified financial contract that suspends, conditions, or extinguishes a payment obligation of a party, in whole or in part, or does not create a payment obligation of a party that would otherwise exist, solely because of such party's status as a nondefaulting party in connection with the insolvency of an insured depository institution that is a party to the contract or the appointment of or the exercise of rights or powers by a conservator or receiver of such depository institution, and not as a result of a party's exercise of any right to offset, setoff, or net obligations that exist under the contract, any other contract between those parties, or applicable law.

(H)  RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS.-- The Corporation, in consultation with the appropriate Federal banking agencies, may prescribe regulations requiring more detailed recordkeeping by any insured depository institution with respect to qualified financial contracts (including market valuations) only if such insured depository institution is in a troubled condition (as such term is defined by the Corporation pursuant to section 1831 of this title).

(9)  TRANSFER OF QUALIFIED FINANCIAL CONTRACTS.--

(A)  IN GENERAL.--In making any transfer of assets or liabilities of a depository institution in default which includes any qualified financial contract, the conservator or receiver for such depository institution shall either--

(i)  transfer to one financial institution, other than a financial institution for which a conservator, receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, or other legal custodian has been appointed or which is otherwise the subject of a bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding--

(I)  all qualified financial contracts between any person or any affiliate of such person and the depository institution in default;

(II)  all claims of such person or any affiliate of such person against such depository institution under any such contract (other than any claim which, under the terms of any such contract, is subordinated to the claims of general unsecured creditors of such institution);

(III)  all claims of such depository institution against such person or any affiliate of such person under any such contract; and

(IV)  all property securing or any other credit enhancement for any contract described in subclause (I) or any claim described in subclause (II) or (III) under any such contract; or

(ii)  transfer none of the qualified financial contracts, claims, property or other credit enhancement referred to in clause (i) (with respect to such person and any affiliate of such person).

(B)  TRANSFER TO FOREIGN BANK, FOREIGN FINANCIAL INSTITUTION, OR BRANCH OR AGENCY OF A FOREIGN BANK OR FINANCIAL INSTITUTION.--In transferring any qualified financial contracts and related claims and property under subparagraph (A)(i), the conservator or receiver for the depository institution shall not make such transfer to a foreign bank, financial institution organized under the laws of a foreign country, or a branch or agency of a foreign bank or financial institution unless, under the law applicable to such bank, financial institution, branch or agency, to the qualified financial contracts, and to any netting contract, any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to one or more qualified financial contracts, the contractual rights of the parties to such qualified financial contracts, netting contracts, security agreements or arrangements, or other credit enhancements are enforceable substantially to the same extent as permitted under this section.

(C)  TRANSFER OF CONTRACTS SUBJECT TO THE RULES OF A CLEARING ORGANIZATION.--In the event that a conservator or receiver transfers any qualified financial contract and related claims, property, and credit enhancements pursuant to subparagraph (A)(i) and such contract is cleared by or subject to the rules of a clearing organization, the clearing organization shall not be required to accept the transferee as a member by virtue of the transfer.

(D)  DEFINITIONS.--For purposes of this paragraph, the term "financial institution" means a broker or dealer, a depository institution, a futures commission merchant, or any other institution, as determined by the Corporation by regulation to be a financial institution, and the term "clearing organization" has the same meaning as in section 402 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991.

(10)  NOTIFICATION OF TRANSFER.--

(A)  IN GENERAL.--If--

(i)  the conservator or receiver for an insured depository institution in default makes any transfer of the assets and liabilities of such institution; and

(ii)  the transfer includes any qualified financial contract, the conservator or receiver shall notify any person who is a party to any such contract of such transfer by 5:00 p.m. (eastern time) on the business day following the date of the appointment of the receiver in the case of a receivership, or the business day following such transfer in the case of a conservatorship.

(B)  CERTAIN RIGHTS NOT ENFORCEABLE.--

(i)  RECEIVERSHIP.--A person who is a party to a qualified financial contract with an insured depository institution may not exercise any right that such person has to terminate, liquidate, or net such contract under paragraph (8)(A) of this subsection or section 403 or 404 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991, solely by reason of or incidental to the appointment of a receiver for the depository institution (or the insolvency or financial condition of the depository institution for which the receiver has been appointed)--

(I)  until 5:00 p.m. (eastern time) on the business day following the date of the appointment of the receiver; or

(II)  after the person has received notice that the contract has been transferred pursuant to paragraph (9)(A).

(ii)  CONSERVATORSHIP.--A person who is a party to a qualified financial contract with an insured depository institution may not exercise any right that such person has to terminate, liquidate, or net such contract under paragraph (8)(E) of this subsection or section 403 or 404 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991, solely by reason of or incidental to the appointment of a conservator for the depository institution (or the insolvency or financial condition of the depository institution for which the conservator has been appointed).

(iii)  NOTICE.--For purposes of this paragraph, the Corporation as receiver or conservator of an insured depository institution shall be deemed to have notified a person who is a party to a qualified financial contract with such depository institution if the Corporation has taken steps reasonably calculated to provide notice to such person by the time specified in subparagraph (A).

(C)  TREATMENT OF BRIDGE DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS.--The following institutions shall not be considered to be a financial institution for which a conservator, receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, or other legal custodian has been appointed or which is otherwise the subject of a bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding for purposes of paragraph (9):

(i)  A bridge depository institution.

(ii)  A depository institution organized by the Corporation, for which a conservator is appointed either--

(I)  immediately upon the organization of the institution; or

(II)  at the time of a purchase and assumption transaction between the depository institution and the Corporation as receiver for a depository institution in default.

(D)  ``BUSINESS DAY'' DEFINED.--For purposes of this paragraph, the term "business day" means any day other than any Saturday, Sunday, or any day on which either the New York Stock Exchange or the Federal Reserve Bank of New York is closed.

(11)  DISAFFIRMANCE OR REPUDIATION OF QUALIFIED FINANCIAL CONTRACTS.--In exercising the rights of disaffirmance or repudiation of a conservator or receiver with respect to any qualified financial contract to which an insured depository institution is a party, the conservator or receiver for such institution shall either--

(A)  disaffirm or repudiate all qualified financial contracts between--

(i)  any person or any affiliate of such person; and

(ii)  the depository institution in default; or

(B)  disaffirm or repudiate none of the qualified financial contracts referred to in subparagraph (A) (with respect to such person or any affiliate of such person).

(12)  CERTAIN SECURITY INTERESTS NOT AVOIDABLE.--No provision of this subsection shall be construed as permitting the avoidance of any legally enforceable or perfected security interest in any of the assets of any depository institution except where such an interest is taken in contemplation of the institution's insolvency or with the intent to hinder, delay, or defraud the institution or the creditors of such institution.

(13)  AUTHORITY TO ENFORCE CONTRACTS.--

(A)  IN GENERAL.--The conservator or receiver may enforce any contract, other than a director's or officer's liability insurance contract or a depository institution bond, entered into by the depository institution notwithstanding any provision of the contract providing for termination, default, acceleration, or exercise of rights upon, or solely by reason of, insolvency or the appointment of or the exercise of rights or powers by a conservator or receiver.

(B)  CERTAIN RIGHTS NOT AFFECTED.--No provision of this paragraph may be construed as impairing or affecting any right of the conservator or receiver to enforce or recover under a director's or officer's liability insurance contract or depository institution bond under other applicable law.

(C)  CONSENT REQUIREMENT.--

(i)  IN GENERAL.--Except as otherwise provided by this section or section 15, no person may exercise any right or power to terminate, accelerate, or declare a default under any contract to which the depository institution is a party, or to obtain possession of or exercise control over any property of the institution or affect any contractual rights of the institution, without the consent of the conservator or receiver, as appropriate, during the 45-day period beginning on the date of the appointment of the conservator, or during the 90-day period beginning on the date of the appointment of the receiver, as applicable.

(ii)  CERTAIN EXCEPTIONS.--No provision of this subparagraph shall apply to a director or officer liability insurance contract or a depository institution bond, to the rights of parties to certain qualified financial contracts pursuant to paragraph (8), or to the rights of parties to netting contracts pursuant to subtitle A of title IV of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (12 U.S.C. 4401 et seq.), or shall be construed as permitting the conservator or receiver to fail to comply with otherwise enforceable provisions of such contract.

(iii)  RULE OF CONSTRUCTION.--Nothing in this subparagraph shall be construed to limit or otherwise affect the applicability of title 11, United States Code.

(14)  EXCEPTION FOR FEDERAL RESERVE AND FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS.--No provision of this subsection shall apply with respect to--

(A)  any extension of credit from any Federal home loan bank or Federal Reserve bank to any insured depository institution; or

(B)  any security interest in the assets of the institution securing any such extension of credit.

(15)  SELLING CREDIT CARD ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE.--

(A)  NOTIFICATION REQUIRED.--An undercapitalized insured depository institution (as defined in section 38) shall notify the Corporation in writing before entering into an agreement to sell credit card accounts receivable.

(B)  WAIVER BY CORPORATION.--The Corporation may at any time, in its sole discretion and upon such terms as it may prescribe, waive its right to repudiate an agreement to sell credit card accounts receivable if the Corporation--

(i)  determines that the waiver is in the best interests of the deposit insurance fund; and

(ii)  provides a written waiver to the selling institution.

(C)  EFFECT OF WAIVER ON SUCCESSORS.--

(i)  IN GENERAL.--If, under subparagraph (B), the Corporation has waived its right to repudiate an agreement to sell credit card accounts receivable--

(I)  any provision of the agreement that restricts solicitation of a credit card customer of the selling institution, or the use of a credit card customer list of the institution, shall bind any receiver or conservator of the institution; and

(II)  the Corporation shall require any acquirer of the selling institution, or of substantially all of the selling institution's assets or liabilities, to agree to be bound by a provision described in subclause (I) as if the acquirer were the selling institution.

(ii)  EXCEPTION.--Clause (i)(II) does not--

(I)  restrict the acquirer's authority to offer any product or service to any person identified without using a list of the selling institution's customers in violation of the agreement;

(II)  require the acquirer to restrict any preexisting relationship between the acquirer and a customer; or

(III)  apply to any transaction in which the acquirer acquires only insured deposits.

(D)  WAIVER NOT ACTIONABLE.--The Corporation shall not, in any capacity, be liable to any person for damages resulting from the waiver of or failure to waive the Corporation's right under this section to repudiate any contract or lease, including an agreement to sell credit card accounts receivable. No court shall issue any order affecting any such waiver or failure to waive.

(E)  OTHER AUTHORITY NOT AFFECTED.--This paragraph does not limit any other authority of the Corporation to waive the Corporation's right to repudiate an agreement or lease under this section.

(16)  CERTAIN CREDIT CARD CUSTOMER LISTS PROTECTED.—

(A)  IN GENERAL.--If any insured depository institution sells credit card accounts receivable under an agreement negotiated at arm's length that provides for the sale of the institution's credit card customer list, the Corporation shall prohibit any party to a transaction with respect to the institution under this section or section 13 from using the list, except as permitted under the agreement.

(B)  FRAUDULENT TRANSACTIONS EXCLUDED.--Subparagraph (A) does not limit the Corporation's authority to repudiate any agreement entered into with the intent to hinder, delay, or defraud the institution, the institution's creditors, or the Corporation.

(17)  SAVINGS CLAUSE.--The meanings of terms used in this subsection are applicable for purposes of this subsection only, and shall not be construed or applied so as to challenge or affect the characterization, definition, or treatment of any similar terms under any other statute, regulation, or rule, including the Gramm--Leach--Bliley Act, the Legal Certainty for Bank Products Act of 2000, the securities laws (as that term is defined in section 3(a)(47) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934), and the Commodity Exchange Act.

[Codified to 12 U.S.C. 1821(e)]

[Source:  Section 2[11(e)] of the Act of September 21, 1950 (Pub. L. No. 797; 64 Stat. 885), effective September 21, 1950, as amended by sections 6(c)(18) and (19) of the Act of September 17, 1978 (Pub. L. No. 95--369; 92 Stat. 619), effective September 17, 1978; section 212(a) of title II of the Act of August 9, 1989 (Pub. L. No. 101--73; 103 Stat. 222), effective August 9, 1989; section 161(a) of title I of the Act of December 19, 1991 (Pub. L. No. 102--242; 105 Stat. 2285), effective December 19, 1991; section 325 of Title III and section 602(a)(26) and (27) of title VI of the Act of September 23, 1994 (Pub. L. No. 103--325; 108 Stat. 2228 and 2289, respectively), effective September 23, 1994; section 501(c)(2) of title V of the Act of October 22, 1994 (Pub. L. No. 103--394; 108 Stat. 4143, effective October 22, 1994; section 2706 of title II of the Act of September 30, 1996 (Pub. L. No. 104--208; 110 Stat. 3009--496), effective September 30, 1996; sections 901(a)(1), (b)(1), (c)(1), (d)(1), (e)(1), (f)(1), (g)(1), (h)(1), 901(i)(1), 902(a)(1), 903(a), 904(a), 905(a), and 908(a) of title IX of the Act of April 20, 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109--8; 119 Stat. 147, 149, 151, 152, 155, 157--162, 165, 166, and 183, respectively), effective April 20, 2005; section 718(a) of title VII of the Act of October 13, 2006 (Pub. L. No. 109--351; 120 Stat. 1997), effective October 13, 2006; sections 2(a)(1), 2(b)(1), 2(c)(1), 3(a) and 6(a) of the Act of December 12, 2006 (Pub. L. No. 109--390; 120 Stat. 2692--2694, and 2698, respectively), effective December 12, 2006; section 1604(a)(2) and (3) of title VII of the Act of July 30, 2008 (Pub. L. No. 110--289; 122 Stat. 2826 and 2827), effective July 30, 2008]

(f)  PAYMENT OF INSURED DEPOSITS.--

(1)  IN GENERAL.--In case of the liquidation of, or other closing or winding up of the affairs of, any insured depository institution, payment of the insured deposits in such institution shall be made by the Corporation as soon as possible, subject to the provisions of subsection (g), either by cash or by making available to each depositor a transferred deposit in a new insured depository institution in the same community or in another insured depository institution in an amount equal to the insured deposit of such depositor.

(2)  PROOF OF CLAIMS.--The Corporation, in its discretion, may require proof of claims to be filed and may approve or reject such claims for insured deposits.

(3)  RESOLUTION OF DISPUTES.--A determination by the Corporation regarding any claim for insurance coverage shall be treated as a final determination for purposes of this section. In its discretion, the Corporation may promulgate regulations prescribing procedures for resolving any disputed claim relating to any insured deposit or any determination of insurance coverage with respect to any deposit.

(4)  REVIEW OF CORPORATION DETERMINATION.--A final determination made by the Corporation regarding any claim for insurance coverage shall be a final agency action reviewable in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code, by the United States district court for the Federal judicial district where the principal place of business of the depository institution is located.

(5)  STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS.--Any request for review of a final determination by the Corporation regarding any claim for insurance coverage shall be filed with the appropriate United States district court not later than 60 days after the date on which such determination is issued.".

[Codified to 12 U.S.C. 1821(f)]

[Source:  Section 2[11(f)] of the Act of September 21, 1950 (Pub. L. No. 797; 64 Stat. 885), effective September 21, 1950, as amended by section 6(c)(20) of the Act of September 17, 1978 (Pub. L. No. 95--369; 92 Stat. 619), effective September 17, 1978; sections 201(a)(1) and 212(a) of title II of the Act of August 9, 1989 (Pub. L. No. 101--73; 103 Stat. 187 and 222), effective August 9, 1989; section 602(a)(28) of title VI of the Act of September 23, 1994 (Pub. L. No. 103--325; 108 Stat. 2289), effective September 23, 1994; Section 8(a)(12) of the Act of February 15, 2006 (Pub. L. No. 109--173; 119 Stat. 3612), effective date shall take effect on the day of the merger of the Bank Insurance Fund and the Savings Association Insurance Fund pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005; section 721(a) of title VII of the Act of October 13, 2006 (Pub. L. No. 109--351; 120 Stat. 1998), effective October 13, 2006]

(g)  SUBROGATION OF CORPORATION.--

(1)  IN GENERAL.--Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal law, the law of any State, or the constitution of any State, the Corporation, upon the payment to any depositor as provided in subsection (f) in connection with any insured depository institution or insured branch described in such subsection or the assumption of any deposit in such institution or branch by another insured depository institution pursuant to this section or section 13, shall be subrogated to all rights of the depositor against such institution or branch to the extent of such payment or assumption.

(2)  DIVIDENDS ON SUBROGRATED AMOUNTS.--The subrogation of the Corporation under paragraph (1) with respect to any insured depository institution shall include the right on the part of the Corporation to receive the same dividends from the proceeds of the assets of such institution and recoveries on account of stockholders' liability as would have been payable to the depositor on a claim for the insured deposit, but such depositor shall retain such claim for any uninsured or unassumed portion of the deposit.

(3)  WAIVER OF CERTAIN CLAIMS.--With respect to any bank which closes after May 25, 1938, the Corporation shall waive, in favor only of any person against whom stockholders' individual liability may be asserted, any claim on account of such liability in excess of the liability, if any, to the bank or its creditors, for the amount unpaid upon such stock in such bank; but any such waiver shall be effected in such manner and on such terms and conditions as will not increase recoveries or dividends on account of claims to which the Corporation is not subrogated.

(4)  APPLICABILITY OF STATE LAW.--If the Corporation is appointed pursuant to subsection (c)(3), or determines not to invoke the authority conferred in subsection (c)(4), the rights of depositors and other creditors of any State depository institution shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provisions of State law.

[Codified to 12 U.S.C. 1821(g)]

[Source:  Section 2[11(g)] of the Act of September 21, 1950 (Pub. L. No. 797; 64 Stat. 885), effective September 21, 1950, as amended by sections 6(c)(21) and (22) of the Act of September 17, 1978 (Pub. L. No. 95--369; 92 Stat. 619), effective September 17, 1978; section 113(k) of title I of the Act of October 15, 1982 (Pub. L. No. 97--320; 96 Stat. 1474), effective October 15, 1982; sections 201(a)(1) and 212(a) of title II of the Act of August 9, 1989 (Pub. L. No. 101--73; 103 Stat. 187 and 222), effective August 9, 1989]

(h)  CONDITIONS APPLICABLE TO RESOLUTION PROCEEDINGS.--

(1)  CONSIDERATION OF LOCAL ECONOMIC IMPACT REQUIRED.--The Corporation shall fully consider the adverse economic impact on local communities, including businesses and farms, of actions to be taken by it during the administration and liquidation of loans of a depository institution in default.

(2)  ACTIONS TO ALLEVIATE ADVERSE ECONOMIC IMPACT TO BE CONSIDERED.--The actions which the Corporation shall consider include the release of proceeds from the sale of products and services for family living and business expenses and shortening the undue length of the decisionmaking process for the acceptance of offers of settlement contingent upon third party financing.

(3)  GUIDELINES REQUIRED.--The Corporation shall adopt and publish procedures and guidelines to minimize adverse economic effects caused by its actions on individual debtors in the community.

(4)  FINANCIAL SERVICES INDUSTRY IMPACT ANALYSIS.--After the appointment of the Corporation as conservator or receiver for any insured depository institution and before taking any action under this section or section 13 in connection with the resolution of such institution, the Corporation shall--

(A)  evaluate the likely impact of the means of resolution, and any action which the Corporation may take in connection with such resolution, on the viability of other insured depository institutions in the same community; and

(B)  take such evaluation into account in determining the means for resolving the institution and establishing the terms and conditions for any such action.

[Codified to 12 U.S.C. 1821(h)]

[Source:  Section 2[11(h)] of the Act of September 21, 1950 (Pub. L. No. 797; 64 Stat. 886--887), effective September 21, 1950, as amended by section 301(d) of title III of the Act of October 16, 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89--695; 80 Stat. 1055), effective October 16, 1966; section 7(a)(4) of title I of the Act of December 23, 1969 (Pub. L. No. 91--151; 83 Stat. 375), effective December 23, 1969; section 102(a)(4) of title I of the Act of October 28, 1974 (Pub. L. No. 93--495; 88 Stat. 1502), effective November 27, 1974; section 308 of title III of the Act of March 31, 1980 (Pub. L. No. 96--221; 94 Stat. 147), effective March 31, 1980; section 503(a)(1) and (2) of title V of the Act of August 10, 1987 (Pub. L. No. 100--86; 101 Stat. 629), effective August 10, 1987 (Pub. L. No. 100--86 redesignated paragraphs (i), (j), (k) and (l) as (2), (3), (4) and (5), respectively); section 212(a) of title II of the Act of August 9, 1989 (Pub. L. No. 101--73; 103 Stat. 222), effective August 9, 1989; section 141(d) of title I of the Act of December 19, 1991 (Pub. L. No. 102--242; 105 Stat. 2277), effective December 19, 1991]

(i)  VALUATION OF CLAIMS IN DEFAULT.--

(1)  IN GENERAL.--Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal law or the law of any State and regardless of the method which the Corporation determines to utilize with respect to an insured depository institution in default or in danger of default, including transactions authorized under subsection (n) and section 13(c), this subsection shall govern the rights of the creditors (other than insured depositors) of such institution.

(2)  MAXIMUM LIABILITY.--The maximum liability of the Corporation, acting as receiver or in any other capacity, to any person having a claim against the receiver or the insured depository institution for which such receiver is appointed shall equal the amount such claimant would have received if the Corporation had liquidated the assets and liabilities of such institution without exercising the Corporation's authority under subsection (n) of this section or section 13.

(3)  ADDITIONAL PAYMENTS AUTHORIZED.--

(A)  IN GENERAL.--The Corporation may, in its discretion and in the interests of minimizing its losses, use its own resources to make additional payments or credit additional amounts to or with respect to or for the account of any claimant or category of claimants. Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal or State law, or the constitution of any State, the Corporation shall not be obligated, as a result of having made any such payment or credited any such amount to or with respect to or for the account of any claimant or category of claimants, to make payments to any other claimant or category of claimants.

(B)  MANNER OF PAYMENT.--The Corporation may make the payments or credit the amounts specified in subparagraph (A) directly to the claimants or may make such payments or credit such amounts to an open insured depository institution to induce such institution to accept liability for such claims.

[Codified to 12 U.S.C. 1821(i)]

[Source:  Section 2[11(i)] of the Act of September 21, 1950 (Pub. L. No. 797; 64 Stat. 886), effective September 21, 1950, as added by section 503(a)(3) of title V of the Act of August 10, 1987 (Pub. L. No. 100--86; 101 Stat. 629--632), effective August 10, 1987, and as amended by section 212(a) of title II of the Act of August 9, 1989 (Pub. L. No. 101--73; 103 Stat. 222), effective August 9, 1989; section 161(e) of title I of the Act of December 19, 1991 (Pub. L. No. 102--242; 105 Stat. 2286), effective December 19, 1991; section 602(a)(29) of title VI of the Act of September 23, 1994 (Pub. L. No. 103--325; 108 Stat. 2289), effective September 23, 1994; Section 8(a)(13) of the Act of February 15, 2006 (Pub. L. No. 109--173; 119 Stat. 3612), effective date shall take effect on the day of the merger of the Bank Insurance Fund and the Savings Association Insurance Fund pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005]

(j)  LIMITATION ON COURT ACTION.—Except as provided in this section, no court may take any action, except at the request of the Board of Directors by regulation or order, to restrain or affect the exercise of powers or functions of the Corporation as a conservator or a receiver.

[Codified to 12 U.S.C. 1821(j)]

[Source:  Section 2[11(j)] of the Act of September 21, 1950 (Pub. L. No. 797; 64 Stat. 886), effective September 21, 1950, as added by section 507 of title V of the Act of August 10, 1987 (Pub. L. No. 100--86; 101 Stat. 634), effective August 10, 1987, and as amended by section 212(a) of title II of the Act of August 9, 1989 (Pub. L. No. 101--73; 103 Stat. 222), effective August 9, 1989]

(k)  LIABILITY OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS.--A director or officer of an insured depository institution may be held personally liable for monetary damages in any civil action by, on behalf of, or at the request or direction of the Corporation, which action is prosecuted wholly or partially for the benefit of the Corporation--

(1)  acting as conservator or receiver of such institution,

(2)  acting based upon a suit, claim, or cause of action purchased from, assigned by, or otherwise conveyed by such receiver or conservator, or

(3)  acting based upon a suit, claim, or cause of action purchased from, assigned by, or otherwise conveyed in whole or in part by an insured depository institution or its affiliate in connection with assistance provided under section 13,

for gross negligence, including any similar conduct or conduct that demonstrates a greater disregard of a duty of care (than gross negligence) including intentional tortious conduct, as such terms are defined and determined under applicable State law. Nothing in this paragraph shall impair or affect any right of the Corporation under other applicable law.

[Codified to 12 U.S.C. 1821(k)]

[Source:  Section 2[11(k)] of the Act of September 21, 1950 (Pub. L. No. 797), effective September 21, 1950, as added by section 212(a) of title II of the Act of August 9, 1989 (Pub. L. No. 101--73; 103 Stat. 222), effective August 9, 1989]

(l)  DAMAGES.--In any proceeding related to any claim against an insured depository institution's director, officer, employee, agent, attorney, accountant, appraiser, or any other party employed by or providing services to an insured depository institution, recoverable damages determined to result from the improvident or otherwise improper use or investment of any insured depository institution's assets shall include principal losses and appropriate interest.

[Codified to 12 U.S.C. 1821(l)]

[Source:  Section 2[11(l)] of the Act of September 21, 1950 (Pub. L. No. 797), effective September 21, 1950, as added by section 212(a) of title II of the Act of August 9, 1989 (Pub. L. No. 101--73; 103 Stat. 222), effective August 9, 1989]


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