Each depositor insured to at least $250,000 per insured bank



Home > Regulation & Examinations > Bank Examinations > FDIC Enforcement Decisions and Orders




FDIC Enforcement Decisions and Orders

ED&O Home | Search Form | Text Search | ED&O Help


{{10-31-94 p.C-2649}}
   [10,624] In the Matter of Bank of Newport, Newport Beach, California, Docket No. FDIC-92-264b (8-18-92).

   Bank to cease and desist from such unsafe or unsound practices as failing to provide adequate supervision over the Bank's affairs; operating with inadequate management; operating with inadequate capital; operating with an excessive level of poor quality loans; operating with inadequate allowance for loan and lease losses; following hazardous lending and lax collection practices; operating with inadequate liquidity and funds management provisions; operating in such a manner as to produce operating losses; and operating in violation of applicable laws or regulations. (This order was terminated by order of the FDIC dated 8-23-94; see ¶ 15,909.)

   [.1] Board of Directors—Responsibilities Specified
   [.2] Management—Qualifications—Review
   [.3] Capital—Tier 1 Capital—Increase/Maintain—Methods
   [.4] Assets—Adversely Classified—Eliminate/Reduce
   [.5] Loans—Extensions of Credit—Existing Borrowers—Curtail
   [.6] Lending and Collection Policy—Minimum Requirements
   [.7] Loans—Concentrations of Credit—Risk Segmentation Analysis
   [.8] Loan Loss Reserve—Establish/Maintain
   [.9] Bank Operations—Expenses and Overhead—Control
   [.10] Strategic Plan—Preparation Required
   [.11] Violations of Law—Eliminate/Correct
   [.12] Asset/Liability Management—Written Policy—Minimum Requirements
   [.13] Dividends—Restricted
   [.14] Compensation—Directors and Management—Review Required
   [.15] Shareholders—Disclosure—Cease and Desist Order
   [.16] Compliance Reports—Frequency

In the Matter of

BANK OF NEWPORT
NEWPORT BEACH, CALIFORNIA
(Insured State Nonmember Bank)
ORDER TO CEASE AND DESIST
FDIC-92-264b

   Bank of Newport, Newport Beach, California ("Bank"), having been advised of its right to a Notice of Charges and of Hearing detailing the unsafe or unsound banking practices and violations of law and/or regulations alleged to have been committed by the Bank and of its right to a hearing on the alleged charges under section 8(b)(1) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act ("Act"), 12 U.S.C. § 1818(b)(1), and having waived those rights, entered into a STIPULATION AND {{10-31-94 p.C-2650}}CONSENT TO THE ISSUANCE OF AN ORDER TO CEASE AND DESIST ("CONSENT AGREEMENT") with counsel for the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC"), dated August 11, 1992, whereby solely for the purpose of this proceeding and without admitting or denying the alleged charges of unsafe or unsound banking practices and violations of law and/or regulations, the Bank consented to the issuance of an ORDER TO CEASE AND DESIST ("ORDER") by the FDIC.
   The FDIC considered the matter and determined that it had reason to believe that the Bank had engaged in unsafe or unsound banking practices and had committed violations of law and/or regulations. The FDIC, therefore, accepted the CONSENT AGREEMENT and issued to following:

ORDER TO CEASE AND DESIST

   IT IS HEREBY ORDERED that the Bank, and any institution-affiliated party as such term is defined in section 3(u) of the Act, 12 U.S.C. § 1813(u), cease and desist from the following unsafe or unsound banking practices and violations:
   (a) operating with inadequate supervision and participation by the board of directors;
   (b) operating with inadequate management;
   (c) operating with inadequate equity capital and reserves in relation to the volume and quality of assets held by the Bank;
   (d) operating with a large volume of poor quality loans;
   (e) operating with an inadequate loan valuation reserve;
   (f) following hazardous lending and lax collection practices;
   (g) operating with inadequate provisions for liquidity and funds management;
   (h) operating in such a manner as to produce operating losses; and
   (i) operating in violation of section 215.4(b) of Regulation O of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, made applicable to state nonmember institutions by section 18(j)(2) of the Act, 12 U.S.C. § 1828(j)(2); section 772(a) of the California Financial Code; and sections 323.2(g)(1), 323.4, 323.5(b), 326.2, and 353.1(a) of the FDIC Rules and Regulations.
   IT IS FURTHER ORDERED that the Bank take affirmative action as follows:

   [.1] 1. Within 30 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the board of directors shall increase its participation in the affairs of the Bank, assuming full responsibility for the approval of sound policies and objectives and for the supervision of all of the Bank's activities, consistent with the role and expertise commonly expected for directors of banks of comparable size. This participation shall include meetings to be held no less frequently than monthly at which, at a minimum, the following areas shall be reviewed and approved: reports of income and expenses; new, overdue, renewal, insider, charged-off, and recovered loans; investment activity; operating policies; and individual committee actions. Board minutes shall document these reviews and approvals, including the names of any dissenting directors.

   [.2] 2. The Bank shall have and retain qualified management.
   (a) Each member of management shall have qualifications and experience commensurate with his or her duties and responsibilities at the Bank. Management should include a chief executive officer with proven ability in managing a Bank of comparable size, and experience in upgrading a low quality loan portfolio, improving earnings, and other matters needing particular attention. Management should also include a senior lending officer with significant appropriate lending, collection, and loan supervision experience and experience in upgrading a low quality loan portfolio. Each member of management shall be provided appropriate written authority from the Bank's board of directors to implement the provisions of this ORDER.
   (b) The qualifications of management shall be assessed on its ability to:

       (i) comply with the requirements of this ORDER;
       (ii) operate the Bank in a safe and sound manner;
       (iii) comply with applicable laws and regulations; and
       (iv) restore all aspects of the Bank to a safe and sound condition, including asset quality, capital adequacy, earnings, management effectiveness, and liquidity.
   (c) During the life of this ORDER, the Bank shall notify the Regional Director of {{10-31-92 p.C-2651}}the FDIC's San Francisco Regional Office ("Regional Director") and the Superintendent of Banks for the State of California ("Superintendent") in writing when it proposes to add any individual to the Bank's board of directors or employ any individual as a senior executive officer. The notification must be received at least 30 days before such addition or employment is intended to become effective and should include a description of the background and experience of the individual or individuals to be added or employed.
   (d) The Bank may not add any individual to its board of directors or employ any individual as a senior executive officer if the Regional Director issues a notice of disapproval pursuant to section 32 of the Act, 12 U.S.C. § 1831i.

[.3] 3. (a) Within 180 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall have total Tier 1 capital of not less than $19,000,000 and shall have Tier 1 capital in such an amount as to equal or exceed six and one-half (6.5) percent of the Bank's total assets. Thereafter, during the life of this ORDER, the Bank shall maintain Tier 1 capital in such an amount as to equal or exceed six and one-half (6.5) percent of the Bank's total assets.
   (b) Within 60 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall develop and adopt a plan to maintain the minimum risk-based capital requirements as described in the FDIC Statement of Policy on Risk-Based Capital contained in Appendix A to Part 325 of the FDIC Rules and Regulations, 12 C.F.R. Part 325, Appendix A. The Plan shall be in a form and manner acceptable to the Regional Director as determined at subsequent examinations.
   (c) The level of Tier 1 capital to be maintained during the life of this ORDER pursuant to Subparagraph 3(a) shall be in addition to a fully funded loan loss reserve, the adequacy of which shall be satisfactory to the Regional Director and Superintendent as determined at subsequent examinations and/or visitations.
   (d) Any increase in Tier 1 capital necessary to meet the requirements of Paragraph 3 of this ORDER may be accomplished by the following:

       (i) the sale of common stock; or
       (ii) the sale of noncumulative perpetual preferred stock; or
       (iii) the direct contribution of cash by the board of directors and/or shareholders of the Bank; or
       (iv) any other means acceptable to the Regional Director and the Superintendent; or
       (v) any combination of the above means.
Any increase in Tier 1 capital necessary to meet the requirements of Paragraph 3 of this ORDER may not be accomplished through a deduction from the Bank's loan loss reserves.
   (e) If all or part of the increase in Tier 1 capital required by Paragraph 3 of this ORDER is accomplished by the sale of new securities, the board of directors shall forthwith take all necessary steps to adopt and implement a plan for the sale of such additional securities, including the voting of any shares owned or proxies held or controlled by them in favor of the plan. Should the implementation of the plan involve a public distribution of the Bank's securities (including a distribution limited only to the Bank's existing shareholders), the Bank shall prepare offering materials fully describing the securities being offered, including an accurate description of the financial condition of the Bank and the circumstances giving rise to the offering, and any other material disclosures necessary to comply with the Federal securities laws. Prior to the implementation of the plan and, in any event, not less than fifteen (15) days prior to the dissemination of such materials, the plan and any materials used in the sale of the securities shall be submitted to the FDIC, Registration and Disclosure Section, Washington, D.C. 20429, for review. Any changes requested to be made in the plan or materials by the FDIC shall be made prior to their dissemination. If the increase in Tier 1 capital is provided by the sale of non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, then all terms and conditions of the issue, including but not limited to those terms and conditions relative to interest rate and convertibility factor, shall be presented to the Regional Director and the Superintendent for prior approval.
   (f) In complying with the provisions of Paragraph 3 of this ORDER, the Bank {{10-31-92 p.C-2652}}shall provide to any subscriber and/or purchaser of the Bank's securities, a written notice of any planned or existing development or other changes which are materially different from the information reflected in any offering materials used in connection with the sale of Bank securities. The written notice required by this paragraph shall be furnished within ten (10) days from the date such material development or change was planned or occurred, whichever is earlier, and shall be furnished to every subscriber and/or purchaser of the Bank's securities who received or was tendered the information contained in the Bank's original offering materials.
   (g) For the purposes of this ORDER, the terms "Tier 1 capital" and "total assets" shall have the meanings ascribed to them in Part 325 of the FDIC Rules and Regulations, 12 C.F.R. §§ 325.2(m) and 325.2(n), as amended at 56 Fed. Reg. 10154, effective April 10, 1991.

[.4] 4. (a) Within 10 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall eliminate from its books, by charge-off or collection, all assets classified "Loss" and one-half of the assets classified "Doubtful" as of March 2, 1992, that have not been previously collected or charged off. Elimination of these assets through proceeds of other loans made by the Bank is not considered collection for the purpose of this paragraph.
   (b) Within 120 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall have reduced the assets classified "Substandard" and those assets classified "Doubtful" as of March 2, 1992 that have not previously been charged off to not more than $19,000,000.
   (c) Within 240 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall have reduced the assets classified "Substandard" and those assets classified "Doubtful" as of March 2, 1992 that have not previously been charged off to not more than $16,000,000.
   (d) Within 365 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall have reduced the assets classified "Substandard" and those assets classified "Doubtful" as of March 2, 1992 that have not previously been charged off to not more than $13,000,000.
   (e) The requirements of subparagraphs 4(a), 4(b), 4(c), and 4(d) of this ORDER are not to be construed as standards for future operations and, in addition to the foregoing, the Bank shall eventually reduce the total of all adversely classified assets. Reduction of these assets through proceeds of other loans made by the Bank is not considered collection for the purpose of this paragraph. As used in subparagraphs 4(b), 4(c), 4(d), and 4(e) the word "reduce" means:

       (i) to collect;
       (ii) to charge-off; or
       (iii) to sufficiently improve the quality of assets adversely classified to warrant removing any adverse classification, as determined by the FDIC.

[.5] 5. (a) Beginning with the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall not, except to the extent legally required, extend, directly or indirectly, any additional credit to, or for the benefit of, any borrower who has a loan or other extension of credit from the Bank that has been charged off or classified, in whole or in part, "Loss" and is uncollected. The requirements of this paragraph shall not prohibit the Bank from renewing any credit already extended to any borrower.
   (b) Paragraph 5(a) shall not apply if the Bank's failure to extend further credit to a particular borrower would be detrimental to the best interests of the Bank. Prior to the extending of any additional credit pursuant to this paragraph, either in the form of a renewal, extension, or further advance of funds, such additional credit shall be approved by a majority of the board of directors, or a designated committee thereof, who shall certify in writing:
       (i) why the failure of the Bank to extend such credit would be detrimental to the best interests of the Bank;
       (ii) that the Bank's position would be improved thereby; and
       (iii) how the Bank's position would be improved.
   (c) The signed certification shall be made a part of the minutes of the board of directors or designated committee, and a copy retained in the borrower's credit file.

[.6] 6. (a) Within 90 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall revise, adopt, and implement written lending and collection policies to provide effective guidance and control over the {{10-31-92 p.C-2653}}Bank's lending function, which policies shall include specific guidelines for placing loans on a non-accrual basis. In addition, the Bank shall obtain adequate and current documentation for all loans in the Bank's loan portfolio. Such policies and their implementation shall be in a form and manner acceptable to the Regional Director and the Superintendent as determined at subsequent examinations and/or visitations.
   (b) The initial revisions to the Bank's loan policy and practices, required by this paragraph, at a minimum, shall include the following:

       (i) provisions, consistent with FDIC instructions for the preparation of Reports of Condition and Income, under which the accrual of interest income is discontinued and previously accrued interest is reversed on delinquent loans;
       (ii) provisions which prohibit the capitalization of interest or loan related expense, or the making of a new loan to cover interest or loan related expenses, unless the board of directors supports in writing and records in the minutes of the corresponding board of directors meeting why an exception thereto is in the best interests of the Bank;
       (iii) provisions which require complete loan documentation, realistic repayment terms and current credit information adequate to support the outstanding indebtedness of the borrower. Such documentation shall include current financial information, profit and loss statements or copies of tax returns and cash flow projections;
       (iv) provisions which incorporate limitations on the amount that can be loaned in relation to established collateral values;
       (v) provisions which specify the circumstances and conditions under which real estate appraisals must be conducted by an independent third party;
       (vi) provisions which establish standards for unsecured credit;
       (vii) provisions which establish officer lending limits;
       (viii) provisions that require extensions of credit to any of the Bank's executive officers, directors, or principal shareholders, or to any related interest of such persons, to be approved in advance by a majority of the entire board of directors in accordance with section 215.4(b) of Regulation O of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 12 C.F.R. § 215.4(b);
       (ix) provisions that directors first determine that the lending staff has the expertise necessary to properly supervise construction loans and that adequate procedures are in place to monitor any construction involved before funds are disbursed;
       (x) provisions which prohibit concentrations of credit in excess of 25 percent of the Bank's total equity capital and reserves to any borrower and that borrower's related interest;
       (xi) provisions which require the preparation of a loan "watch list" which shall include relevant information on all loans which are classified "Substandard" and "Doubtful" as of March 2, 1992 or by the FDIC or California State Banking Department in subsequent Reports of Examination and all other loans which warrant individual review and consideration by the board of directors as determined by the loan committee or active management. The loan "watch list" shall be presented to the board of directors for review at least monthly with such review noted in the minutes; and
       (xii) the board of directors shall adopt procedures whereby officer compliance with the revised loan policy is monitored and responsibility for exceptions thereto assigned. The procedures adopted shall be reflected in minutes of a board of directors meeting at which all members are present and the vote of each is noted.

   [.7] 7. Within 90 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall perform a risk segmentation analysis with respect to the Concentrations of Credit listed on page 2-b of the Report of Examination of the Bank as of March 2, 1992. Concentrations should be identified by product type, geographic distribution, underlying collateral or other asset groups which are considered economically related and in the aggregate represent a large portion of the Bank's capital account. A copy of this analysis will be provided to the Regional Director and the Superintendent and the board agrees to develop a {{10-31-92 p.C-2654}}plan to reduce any segment of the portfolio which the Regional Director and Superintendent deem to be an undue concentration of credit in relation to the Bank's capital account. The implementation of plan shall be in a form and manner acceptable to the Regional Director and the Superintendent as determined at subsequent examinations and/or visitations.

   [.8] 8. Within 30 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall establish and thereafter maintain an adequate reserve for loan losses.
   In addition, within 60 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the board of directors shall develop or revise, adopt and implement a comprehensive policy for determining the adequacy of the reserve for loan losses. For the purpose of this determination, the adequacy of the reserve shall be determined after the charge-off of all loans or other items classified "Loss." The policy shall provide for a review of the reserve at least once each calendar quarter. Said review should be completed in such time so that the findings of the board of directors with respect to the loan loss reserve may be properly reported in the quarterly Reports of Condition and Income. The review should focus on the results of the Bank's internal loan review, loan loss experience, trends of delinquent and non-accrual loans, an estimate of potential loss exposure of significant credits, concentrations of credit, and present and prospective economic conditions. A deficiency in the reserve shall be remedied in the calendar quarter it is discovered, prior to submitting the Report of Condition, by a charge to current operating earnings. The minutes of the board of directors meeting at which such review is undertaken shall indicate the results of the review.

   [.9] 9. Within 90 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall develop and adopt a plan to control overhead and other expenses and restore the Bank's profitability. The plan shall be in a form and manner acceptable to the Regional Director and the Superintendent as determined at subsequent examinations and/or visitations.

   [.10] 10. Within 120 days of the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall develop and submit to the Regional Director and the Superintendent a written three-year strategic plan. Such plan shall include specific goals for the dollar volume of total loans, total investment securities, and total deposits as of December 31, 1992, December 31, 1993, and December 31, 1994. For each time frame, the plan will also specify the anticipated average maturity and average yield on loans and securities; the average maturity and average cost of deposits; the level of earning assets as a percentage of total assets; and the ratio of net interest income to average earning assets. The plan shall be in a form and manner acceptable to the Regional Director and the Superintendent as determined at subsequent examinations and/or visitations.

   [.11] 11. Within 60 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall, to the extent legally possible, eliminate and/or correct all violations of law which are more fully set out on pages 6-a-1 through 6-a-4 of the Report of Examination of the Bank as of March 2, 1992. In addition, the Bank shall take all necessary steps to ensure future compliance with all applicable laws and regulations.

   [.12] 12. Within 90 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the board of directors shall develop a comprehensive asset/ liability management policy. The policy shall establish standards consistent with generally accepted prudent banking operations by giving specific consideration to:

       (i) establishing a range for the Bank's volatile liability dependency ratio, as computed by the FDIC in its Reports of Examination;
       (ii) establishing a range for short-term investments to potentially volatile liabilities, as those terms are defined by the FDIC in its current edition of "A Users Guide for the Uniform Bank Performance Report";
       (iii) establishing maturity ranges for the Bank's investment portfolio;
       (iv) establishing acceptable ranges for the Bank's rate sensitivity and gap ratios; and
       (v) the establishing of an asset/ liability committee, including a description of its responsibilities, how often it will meet, how it will obtain information and guidance from the board of directors, and how its activities will be reported to the board of directors.

   [.13] 13. The Bank shall not pay cash dividends without the prior written consent of the Regional Director and the Superintendent.

   [.14] 14. Within 90 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall develop, adopt and implement a director and senior management compensation plan after undertaking a review of compensation paid to any of the Bank's directors and executive officers. At a minimum, the review shall include the following:
   (a) a critical analysis of each individual's background, experience, duties and responsibilities, and an appraisal of each individual's performance compared to the present level of compensation;
   (b) a comparison of each director's and officer's total compensation with the compensation received by directors and officers with similar responsibilities in similar institutions; and
   (c) a determination of whether present executive officers are capable of implementing board directives and policies, operating within the constraints of laws and regulations, and operating the Bank in a prudent manner.
   For the purposes of this paragraph, "compensation" refers to any and all salaries, bonuses, fees and other benefits of every kind and nature whatsoever, whether paid directly or indirectly. The compensation plan shall be submitted to the Regional Director and the board agrees to reduce the compensation of any director or executive officer which the Regional Director deems to be excessive. The implementation of the compensation plan shall be in a form and manner acceptable to the Regional Director as determined at subsequent examinations and/or visitations.

   [.15] 15. Following the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall send to its shareholders or otherwise furnish a description of this ORDER in conjunction with the Bank's next shareholder communication and also in conjunction with its notice or proxy statement preceding the Bank's next shareholder meeting. The description shall describe the ORDER in all material respects.

   [.16] 16. Within 30 days of the end of the first quarter following the effective date of this ORDER, and within thirty (30) days of the end of each quarter thereafter, the Bank shall furnish written progress reports to the Regional Director and the Superintendent detailing the form and manner of any actions taken to secure compliance with this ORDER and the results thereof. Such reports shall include a copy of the Bank's Report of Condition and the Bank's Report of Income. Such reports may be discontinued when the corrections required by this ORDER have been accomplished and the Regional Director and the Superintendent have released the Bank in writing from making further reports.
   The provisions of this ORDER shall be binding upon the Bank, its directors, officers, employees, agents, successors, assigns, and other persons participating in the conduct of the affairs of the Bank.
   This ORDER shall become effective ten (10) days from the date of its issuance.
   The provisions of this ORDER shall remain effective and enforceable except to the extent that, and until such time as, any provisions of this ORDER shall have been modified, terminated, suspended, or set aside by the FDIC.
   Dated at San Francisco, California, this 18th day of August, 1992.
   Pursuant to delegated authority.

ED&O Home | Search Form | Text Search | ED&O Help

Last Updated 6/6/2003 legal@fdic.gov