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FDIC Enforcement Decisions and Orders

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   [10,137] In the Matter of Lippo Bank, Los Angeles, California, Docket No. FDIC 90-257b (12-3-90).

   Bank to cease and desist from operating with inadequate management; operating with inadequate equity capital and reserves; operating with a large volume of poor quality loans; operating with an inadequate loan valuation reserve; following hazardous lending and lax collection practices; operating with inadequate provisions for liquidity and funds management; operating with inadequate routine and controls policies; operating in such a manner as to produce operating losses; and operating in violation of federal and state laws and regulations.

   [.1] Management—Qualifications—Compliance
   [.2] Capital—Primary Capital—Increase Required—Methods
   [.3] Assets—Adversely Classified—Reduce/Eliminate—Schedule
   [.4] Loans—Extensions of Credit—Existing Borrowers—Curtail
   [.5] Loan Policy—Minimum Requirements—Review
   [.6] Loan Loss Reserve—Establish/Maintain—Review
   [.7] Profit Plan—Expense Control—Review
   [.8] Violations of Law—Eliminate/Correct
   [.9] Asset/Liability Management—Establish Policy—Minimum Requirement
   [.10] Bank Operations—Internal Routine and Control Policy—Review
   [.11] Dividends—Restricted
   [.12] Reports of Condition and Income—Amend
   [.13] Shareholders—Disclosure—Cease and Desist Order
   [.14] Real Estate Activities—Compliance with State Law Required
   [.15] Compliance—Progress Reports—Frequency

In the Matter of

LIPPO BANK
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
(Insured State Nonmember Bank)
ORDER TO CEASE AND DESIST

   Lippo Bank, Los Angeles, California ("Bank"), having been advised of its right to a Notice of Charges and of Hearing detailing the unsafe or unsound banking practices and violations of law and/or regulations alleged to have been committed by the Bank and of its right to a hearing on the alleged charges under section 8(b)(1) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act ("Act"), 12 U.S.C. § 1818(b)(1), and having waived those rights, entered into a STIPULATION AND CONSENT TO THE ISSUANCE OF AN ORDER TO CEASE AND DESIST ("CONSENT AGREEMENT") with counsel for the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC"), dated November 19, 1990, whereby solely for the purpose of this proceeding and without admitting or denying the alleged charges of unsafe or unsound banking practices and violations of law and/or regulations, the Bank consented to the issuance of an ORDER TO CEASE AND DESIST ("ORDER") by the FDIC.
   The FDIC considered the matter and determined that it had reason to believe that the Bank had engaged in unsafe or unsound banking practices and had committed violations of law and/or regulations. The FDIC, therefore, accepted the CONSENT AGREEMENT and issued the following:

ORDER TO CEASE AND DESIST

   IT IS HEREBY ORDERED that the Bank, and any institution-affiliated party as such term is defined in section 3(u) of the Act, 12 U.S.C. 1813(u), cease and desist from the following unsafe or unsound banking practices and violations:
   (a) operating with inadequate management;
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   (b) operating with inadequate equity capital and reserves in relation to the volume and quality of assets held by the Bank;
   (c) operating with a large volume of poor quality loans;
   (d) operating with an inadequate loan valuation reserve;
   (e) following hazardous lending and lax collection practices;
   (f) operating with inadequate provisions for liquidity and funds management;
   (g) operating with inadequate routine and controls policies;
   (h) operating in such a manner as to produce operating losses;
   (i) operating in violation of section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended, 12 U.S.C. § 375b, and section 215.4(a) of Regulation O of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 12 C.F.R. § 215.4(a) made applicable to state nonmember institutions by section 18(j)(2) of the Act, 12 U.S.C. 1828(j)(2), as more fully described on page 6-a of the Report of Examination as of May 8, 1990; section 350.4(d) of the FDIC Rules and Regulations, 12 C.F.R. § 350.4(d); and section 1221 of the California Financial Code.
   IT IS FURTHER ORDERED that the Bank take affirmative action as follows:

   [.1] 1. Within 60 days of the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall have and thereafter retain qualified management.
   (a) Each member of management shall have qualifications and experience commensurate with his or her duties and responsibilities at the Bank. Management shall include a chief executive officer with proven ability in managing a financial institution and experience in upgrading low quality assets. Management shall also include a senior lending officer with an appropriate level of lending, collection, and loan supervision experience for the type and quality of the Bank's loans. Each member of management shall be provided appropriate written authority from the Bank's board of directors to implement the provisions of this ORDER.
   (b) The qualifications of management shall be assessed on its ability to:

       (i) comply with the requirements of this ORDER;
       (ii) operate the Bank in a safe and sound manner;
       (iii) comply with applicable laws and regulations;
and
       (iv) restore all aspects of the Bank to a safe and sound condition, including asset quality, capital adequacy, earnings, management effectiveness, and liquidity.
   (c) During the life of this ORDER, the Bank shall notify the Regional Director of the FDIC's San Francisco Regional Office ("Regional Director") and the Superintendent of Banks ("Superintendent") in writing when it proposes to add any individual to the Bank's board of directors or employ any individual as a senior executive officer. The notification must be received at least 30 days before such addition or employment is intended to become effective and should include a description of the background and experience of the individual or individuals to be added or employed.
   (d) The Bank may not add any individual to its board of directors or employ any individual as a senior executive officer if the Regional Director issues a notice of disapproval pursuant to section 32 of the Act, 12 U.S.C. § 1831i.

   [.2] 2. (a) Within 90 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall increase primary capital by no less than $2,100,000, and shall have adjusted primary capital in such an amount as to equal or exceed seven and one-half (7.5) percent of the Bank's adjusted Part 325 total assets. Thereafter, during the life of this ORDER, the Bank shall maintain adjusted primary capital in such an amount as to equal or exceed seven and one-half (7.5) percent of the Bank's adjusted Part 325 total assets. Primary capital and Part 325 total assets shall be calculated in accordance with prevailing instructions for the preparation of Reports of Condition. The computation of adjusted primary capital and the ratio of adjusted primary capital to adjusted Part 325 total assets shall be determined by using the procedures outlined in the "Analysis of Capital" schedule in the FDIC Report of Examination.
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   (b) Any increase in primary capital necessary to meet the requirements of Paragraph 2 of this ORDER may be accomplished by the following:

       (i) the sale of common stock; or
       (ii) the sale of perpetual preferred stock; or
       (iii) the direct contribution of cash by the board of directors and/or shareholders of the Bank; or
       (iv) the collection of assets previously charged off; or
       (v) the reduction of the "Loss" and "Doubtful" assets specified in Paragraph 3 of this ORDER without loss or liability to the Bank; or
       (vi) any other means acceptable to the Regional Director and the Superintendent; or
       (vii) any combination of the above means.
   (c) If all or part of the increase in primary capital required by Paragraph 2 of this ORDER is accomplished by the sale of new securities, the board of directors shall forthwith take all necessary steps to adopt and implement a plan for the sale of such additional securities, including the voting of any shares owned or proxies held or controlled by them in favor of the plan. Should the implementation of the plan involve a public distribution of the Bank's securities (including a distribution limited only to the Bank's existing shareholders), the Bank shall prepare offering materials fully describing the securities being offered, including an accurate description of the financial condition of the Bank and the circumstances giving rise to the offering, and any other material disclosures necessary to comply with the Federal securities laws. Prior to the implementation of the plan and, in any event, not less than fifteen (15) days prior to the dissemination of such materials, the plan and any materials used in the sale of the securities shall be submitted to the FDIC, Registration and Disclosure Section, Washington, D.C. 20429, for review. Any changes requested to be made in the plan or materials by the FDIC shall be made prior to their dissemination. If the increase in equity capital is provided by the sale of preferred stock, then all terms and conditions of the issue, including but not limited to those terms and conditions relative to interest rate and convertibility factor, shall be presented to the Regional Director and the Superintendent for prior approval.
   (d) In complying with the provisions of Paragraph 2 of this ORDER, the Bank shall provide to any subscriber and/or purchaser of the Bank's securities written notice of any planned or existing development or other changes which are materially different from the information reflected in any offering materials used in connection with the sale of Bank securities. The written notice required by this paragraph shall be furnished within ten (10) days from the date such material development or change was planned or occurred, whichever is earlier, and shall be furnished to every subscriber and/or purchaser of the Bank's securities who received or was tendered the information contained in the Bank's original offering materials.
   (e) For the purpose of this ORDER, the terms "primary capital" and "total assets" shall have the meanings ascribed to them in Part 325 of the FDIC Rules and Regulations, 12 C.F.R. §§ 325.2(h) and 325.2(k).

   [.3] 3. (a) Within 10 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall eliminate from its books, by charge-off or collection, all assets classified "Loss" and one-half of the assets classified "Doubtful" as of May 8, 1990, that have not been previously collected or charged off. Elimination of these assets through proceeds of other loans made by the Bank is not considered collection for the purpose of this paragraph.
   (b) Within 90 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall have reduced the assets classified "Substandard", those assets classified "Doubtful" that have not previously been charged off, and those assets listed for Special Mention as of May 8, 1990 to not more than $17,000,000.
   (c) Within 180 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall have reduced the assets classified "Substandard", those assets classified "Doubtful" that have not previously been charged off, and those assets listed for Special Mention as of May 8, 1990 to not more than $15,000,000.
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   (d) Within 270 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall have reduced the assets classified "Substandard", those assets classified "Doubtful" that have not previously been charged off, and those assets listed for Special Mention as of May 8, 1990 to not more than $12,000,000.
   (e) Within 360 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall have reduced the assets classified "Substandard", those assets classified "Doubtful" that have not previously been charged off, and those assets listed for Special Mention as of May 8, 1990 to not more than $8,000,000.
   (f) The requirements of subparagraphs 3(a), 3(b), 3(c), 3(d) and 3(e) of this ORDER are not to be construed as standards for future operations and, in addition to the foregoing, the Bank shall eventually reduce the total of all adversely classified assets. Reduction of these assets through proceeds of other loans made by the Bank is not considered collection for the purpose of this paragraph. As used in subparagraphs 3(b), 3(c), 3(d) and 3(e) the word "reduce" means:

       (i) to collect;
       (ii) to charge-off; or
       (iii) to sufficiently improve the quality of assets adversely classified or listed for Special Mention to warrant removing any adverse classification or listing, as determined by the FDIC.

   [.4] 4. Beginning with the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall not extend, directly or indirectly, any additional credit to, or for the benefit of, any borrower who has a loan or other extension of credit from the Bank that has been charged off or classified, in whole or in part, "Loss" or "Doubtful" and is uncollected. The requirements of this paragraph shall not prohibit the Bank from renewing (after collection in cash of interest due from the borrower) any credit already extended to any borrower.
   (b) Additionally, during the life of this ORDER, the Bank shall not extend, directly or indirectly, any additional credit to, or for the benefit of, any borrower who has a loan or other extension of credit from the Bank that has been classified, in whole or part, "Substandard" or is listed for Special Mention and is uncollected. The requirements of this paragraph shall not prohibit the Bank from renewing (after collection in cash of interest due from the borrower) any credit already extended to any borrower.
   (c) Paragraph 4(b) shall not apply if the Bank's failure to extend further credit to a particular borrower would be detrimental to the best interests of the Bank. Prior to the extending of any additional credit pursuant to this paragraph, either in the form of a renewal, extension, or further advance of funds, such additional credit shall be approved by a majority of the board of directors, or a designated committee thereof, who shall certify, in writing:
       (i) why the failure of the Bank to extend such credit would be detrimental to the best interests of the Bank;
       (ii) that the Bank's position would be improved thereby; and
       (iii) how the Bank's position would be improved. The signed certification shall be made a part of the minutes of the board of directors or designated committee, and a copy of the signed certification shall be retained in the borrower's credit file.
   [.5] 5. (a) Within 30 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall submit to the Regional Director and Superintendent for review a revised lending and collection policy to provide effective guidance and control over the Bank's lending function. Review and comment shall be forwarded to the Bank within 30 days of receipt of such policy. The policy shall be adopted and its implementation acceptable to the Regional Director and the Superintendent as determined at subsequent examinations and/or visitations.
   (b) The initial revisions to the Bank's loan policy and practices, required by this paragraph, at a minimum, shall include the following:
   (i) provisions, consistent with FDIC instructions for the preparation of Reports of Condition and Income, under which the accrual of interest income is discontinued and previously accrued interest is reversed on delinquent loans;
   (ii) provisions which prohibit the capitalization of interest or loan relat- {{2-28-91 p.C-664}}ed expense unless the board of directors supports in writing and records in the minutes of the corresponding board of directors meeting why an exception thereto is in the best interests of the Bank;

   (iii) provisions which require complete loan documentation, realistic repayment terms and current credit information adequate to support the outstanding indebtedness of the borrower. Such documentation shall include current financial information, profit and loss statements or copies of tax returns and cash flow projections;
   (iv) provisions which incorporate limitations on the amount that can be loaned in relation to established collateral values.
   (v) provisions which specify the circumstances and conditions under which real estate appraisals must be conducted by an independent third party;
   (vi) provisions which establish standards for unsecured credit;
   (vii) provisions which establish officer lending limits;
   (viii) provisions which require participation certificates and related forms covering the sale of loans be revised to eliminate deficiencies as enumerated on pages 1 through 1-a-3 of the Report of Examination of the Bank as of May 8, 1990;
   (ix) provisions that require extensions of credit to any of the Bank's executive officers, directors, or principal shareholders, or to any related interest of such persons, to be approved in advance by a majority of the entire board of directors in accordance with section 215.4(b) of Regulation O of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 12 C.F.R. § 215.4(b);
   (x) provisions which prohibit the issuance of standby letters of credit unless the letters of credit are fully secured by readily marketable collateral and/or are supported by current and complete financial information;
   (xi) provisions that directors first determine that the lending staff has the expertise necessary to properly supervise construction loans and that adequate procedures are in place to monitor any construction involved before funds are disbursed;
   (xii) provisions which prohibit concentrations of credit in excess of 25 percent of the Bank's total equity capital and reserves to any borrower and that borrower's related interests;
   (xiii) provisions which require the preparation of a loan "watch list" which shall include relevant information on all loans in excess of $100,000 which are classified "Substandard" and "Doubtful" as of May 8, 1990 or by the FDIC or State Banking Department in subsequent Reports of Examination and all other loans in excess of $100,000 which warrant individual review and consideration by the board of directors as determined by the loan committee or active management. The loan "watch list" shall be presented to the board of directors for review at least monthly with such review noted in the minutes; and
   (xiv) the board of directors shall adopt procedures whereby officer compliance with the revised loans policy is monitored and responsibility for exceptions thereto assigned. The procedures adopted shall be reflected in minutes of a board of directors meeting at which all members are present and the vote of each is noted.
   [.6] 6. Within 30 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall establish and thereafter maintain an adequate reserve for loan losses.
   (a) Additionally, within 30 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall submit to the Regional Director and Superintendent for review a revised and comprehensive policy for determining the adequacy of the reserve for loan losses. Review and comment shall be forwarded to the Bank within 30 days of receipt of such policy. For the purpose of this determination, the adequacy of the reserve shall be determined after the charge-off of all loans or other items classified "Loss." The policy shall provide for a review of the reserve at least once each calendar quarter. Said review should be completed at least ten (10) days prior to the end of each quarter, in order that the findings of the board of directors with respect to the loan loss reserve may be properly reported in the {{2-28-91 p.C-665}}quarterly Reports of Condition and Income. The review should focus on the results of the Bank's internal loan review, loan loss experience, trends of delinquent and non-accrual loans, an estimate of potential loss exposure of significant credits, concentrations of credit, and present and prospective economic conditions. A deficiency in the reserve shall be remedied in the calendar quarter it is discovered, prior to submitting the Report of Condition, by a charge to current operating earnings. The minutes of the board of directors meeting at which such review is undertaken shall indicate the results of the review. Upon completion of the review, the Bank shall increase and maintain its loss reserve consistent with the loan loss reserve policy established. Such policy shall be adopted and its implementation satisfactory to the Regional Director and the Superintendent as determined at subsequent examinations and/or visitations.

   [.7] 7. Within 30 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall submit to the Regional Director and Superintendent a plan to control overhead and other expenses and restore the Bank's profitability. Review and comment of such plan shall be forwarded to the Bank within 30 days of receipt of such plan. The plan shall be adopted and its implementation acceptable to the Regional Director and the Superintendent as determined at subsequent examinations and/or visitations.

   [.8] 8. Within 60 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall eliminate and/or correct all violations of law which are more fuly set out on page 6-a of the Report of Examination of the Bank as of May 8, 1990. In addition, the Bank shall take all necessary steps to ensure future compliance with all applicable laws and regulations.

   [.9] 9. Within 60 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the board of directors shall implement an asset/liability management policy which establishes a range for the Bank's volatile liability dependency ratio, as computed by the FDIC in its Reports of Examination, and which ratio shall, within 180 days from the effective date of this ORDER, be reduced to not more than fifteen (15.0) percent; and within 360 days from the effective date of this ORDER, be reduced to not more than five (5.0) percent. Calculation of the volatile liability dependency ratio shall be as utilized in the uniform bank performance report except that certificates of deposit of $100,000 or more shall not be included in volatile liabilities when those certificates of deposits are pledged as collateral for loans in the bank, provided that maturities of the certificates of deposit and the related loan are essentially identical, and that the Bank maintain clear records of those related certificates of deposit and loans on an ongoing basis which reflect month-end volume of both items. The requirements of this paragraph shall not be construed as standards for future operations, and the Bank's volatile liability dependency ratio shall be maintained at a level consistent with prudent banking practices.

   [.10] 10. Within 30 days from the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall submit to the Regional Director and Superintendent for review a policy for the operation of the Bank in such a manner as to provide adequate internal routine and control policies consistent with safe and sound banking practices. Review and comment shall be forwarded to the Bank within 30 days of receipt of such policy. The policy shall be adopted and its implementation satisfactory to the Regional Director and the Superintendent as determined at subsequent examinations and/or visitations.

   [.11] 11. The Bank shall not pay cash dividends in any amount except as follows:

       (a) such declarations and payments are made in accordance with applicable State and Federal laws and regulations;
       (b) that after payment of such dividends, the ratio of adjusted primary capital to adjusted Part 325 total assets of the Bank will be not less than seven and one-half (7.5) percent;
       (c) that such declaration and payment of dividends shall be approved in advance by the board of directors; and
       (d) that such declaration and payment of dividends shall be approved in advance, in writing, by the Regional Director and the Superintendent.

   [.12] 12. Within 10 days after eliminating from its books any asset in compliance with Paragraph 3 of this ORDER, the Bank shall file with the FDIC amended Consoli- {{2-28-91 p.C-666}}dated Reports of Condition and Income which shall accurately reflect the financial condition of the Bank as of September 30, 1990. Thereafter, during the life of this ORDER, the Bank shall file with the FDIC Consolidated Reports of Condition and Income which accurately reflect the financial condition of the Bank as of the end of the period for which the Reports are filed, including any adjustment in the Bank's books made necessary or appropriate as a consequence of any California State Banking Department or FDIC examination of the Bank during that reporting period.

   [.13] 13. Following the effective date of this ORDER, the Bank shall send to its shareholders or otherwise furnish a description of this ORDER in conjunction with the Bank's next shareholder communication and also in conjunction with its notice or proxy statement preceding the Bank's next shareholder meeting. The description shall fully describe the ORDER in all material respects.

   [.14] 14. During the life of this ORDER, the Bank shall furnish to the Regional Director a copy of any application to the Superintendent filed pursuant to section 751.3 of the California Financial Code, Cal. Fin. Code § 751.3 (West 1989), to engage in real estate activities. This copy of such application shall be furnished to the Regional Director on or before the date of its filing with the Superintendent. In no event shall the Bank engage in real estate activities which are the subject of any such application filed pursuant to section 751.3 of the California Financial Code without the prior written consent of the Regional Director.

   [.15] 15. Within 30 days of the end of the first quarter following the effective date of this ORDER, and within thirty (30) days of the end of each quarter thereafter, the Bank shall furnish written progress reports to the Regional Director and the Superintendent detailing the form and manner of any actions taken to secure compliance with this ORDER and the results thereof. Such reports shall include a copy of the Bank's Report of Condition and the Bank's Report of Income. Such reports may be discontinued when the corrections required by this ORDER have been accomplished and the Regional Director and the Superintendent have released the Bank in writing from making further reports.
   The provisions of this ORDER shall be binding upon the Bank, its directors, officers, employees, agents, successors, assigns, and other persons participating in the conduct of the affairs of the Bank.
   This ORDER shall become effective ten (10) days from the date of its issuance.
   The provisions of this ORDER shall remain effective and enforceable except to the extent that, and until such time as, any provisions of this ORDER shall have been modified, terminated, suspended, or set aside by the FDIC.
   Pursuant to delegated authority.
   Dated at San Francisco, California, this 3rd day of December, 1990.

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